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Bittner, Walter Simon 

The xmiversity extension 



BULLETIN, 1919, No. 84 







No. 1. Monthly record of current educational publications, January, 1919. 

No. 2. Standardization of medical inspection facilities. J. H. Berkowitz. 

No. 3. Home education. Ellen C. Lombard. 

No. 4. A manual of educational, legislation. 

No. 5. Instruction in music, 1916-1918. Waldo S. Pratt. 

No. G. The half-time mill school. II. W. Foght. 

No. 7. Rural education, 1916-1918. H. W. Foght. 

No. 8. Life of Henry Barnard. Bernard C. Steiner. 

No. 9. Education in Great Britain and Ireland. I. L. Kandel. 

No. 10. Educational work of the churches in 1916-1918. 

No. 11. Monthly record of current educational publications, February, 1919. 

No. 12. Education in the Territories and dependencies, 1916-1918. 

No. 13. Review of educational legislation, 1917 and 1918. Win. R, Hood. 

No. 14. Monthly record of current educational publications, March, 1919. 

No. 15. The adjustment of the teaching load in a university. L. V. Koos. 

No. 16. The kindergarten curriculum. 

No. 17. Educational conditions in Spain. Walter A. Montgomery. 

No. 18. Commercial education, 1916-1918. Frank V. Thompson. 

No. 19. Engineering education, 1916-1918. F. L. Bishop. 

No. 20. The rural teacher of Nebraska. 

No. 21. Education in Germany. I. L. Kandel. 

No. 22. A survey of higher education, 1916-1918. S. P.-Capen and W. C. John. 

No. 23. Monthly record of current educational publications, April, 1919. 

No. 24. Educational work of the Boy Scouts. Lome W. Barclay. 

No. 25. Vocational education, 1916-1918. Win. T. Bawden. 

No. 26. The United States School Garden Army. J. H. Francis. 

No. 27. Recent progress in Negro education. Thomas J. Jones. 

No. 28. Educational periodicals during the nineteenth century. Sheldon B. 


No. 29. Schools of Scandinavia, Finland, and Holland. Peter H. Pearson. 
No. 30. The American spirit in education. C. R. Mann. 
No. 31. Summer schools in' 1918. 
No. 32, Monthly record of current educational publications ; Index, February, 

1918-January, 1919. 

No. 33. Girl Scouts as an educational force. Juliette Low. 
No. 34. Monthly record of current educational publications, May, 1919. 
No. 35. The junior college. F, M. McDowell. 
No. 36. Education in Italy. Walter A. Montgomery. 
No. 37. Educational changes in Russia. Theresa Bach. 
No. 38. Education in Switzerland, 1910-1918. Peter II. Pearson. 
No. 39. Training little children. 

No. 40. Work of the Bureau of Education for tho natives of Alaska. 1917-18. 
No. 41. An educational .study of Alabama. 

No. 42. Monthly record of ducational publications, June, 1919. 

No. 43. Education :e. I. L. Kandel. 

No. 44. Modern education in China. Charles K. Edmunds. 
[Continued on page 3 of cover.] 



BULLETIN, 1919, No- 84 
















Letter of transmittal 5 

Preface 3 

University extension development and definition 9 

History of university extension 14 

Relation between the English and American movements 15 

The war and educational extension 24 

Federal division of educational extension established 27 

National association incorporated 36 

Essential elements of university extension 38 

Institutions pursuing the several activities 44 

The content of extension : 

Extension in health 51 

Extension work in engineering, by J. J. Schlicher 56 

The extent of extension service 60 

Directory of general extension services 70 

Notes on State university divisions: 

University of Arizona 77 

University of Arkansas 78 

University of California 78 

University of Colorado . .' 79 

University of Florida 80 

University of Idaho ? 80 

University of Illinois 80 

University of Chicago 81 

Indiana University 81 

University of Iowa 82 

University of Kansas 83 

University of Kentucky 84 

Massachusetts Board of Education 84 

Commission on Extension Courses, Cambridge, Mass 84 

University of Michigan 85 

University of Minnesota 86 

University of Missouri 86 

University of Montana 87 

University of Nebraska 87 

University of Nevada . 87 

University of New Mexico 88 

Columbia University (New York) 88 

University of North Carolina 89 

University of North Dakota 90 

University of Oklahoma 90 

University of Oregon 91 

University of Pittsburgh 92 

University of South Dakota 92 

University of Texas 92 



Notes on State university divisions Continued. i ae.. 

University of Utah 93 

University of Virginia '. 93 

University of Washington 94 

University of Wisconsin 94 

University of Wyoming . '. 

General extension in agricultural colleges 96 

The organization of extension work 

List of extension publications 1 07 




Washington, October 21, 1919. 

SIR: For two decades university extension work in this country 
has been increasing in volume. The growing recognition of the value 
of its various forms is indicated by the fact that within the last five 
years the total amount of appropriations for the support of univer- 
sity extension work has more than doubled, and the number of stu- 
dents has increased more than threefold. The need for extension 
education on a very large scale now and for the next few years at 
least is indicated by the following facts : 

(1) There are now in the United States approximately four and a 
half million discharged soldiers, one-half of whom were overseas and 
all of whom have had impressed upon them in many ways the impor- 
tance of education. It is a matter of common knowledge that these 
men, nearly all of them young men, are eager to take advantage of 
all available information for instruction in things pertaining to their 
vocations, to citizenship, and to general culture. Few of them will 
or can go to college ; practically none of them will enter the ordinary 
public high schools; they are too old for this. Some, but compara- 
tively few, will find their way into special vocational schools and 
part-time classes in industrial plants. A great majority of them 
must depend upon such opportunities as can be provided by exten- 
sion education. 

(2) The shortening of the hours of labor and recent increase in 
wages have given to millions of working men and women time and 
means for self-improvement far beyond anything which such men 
and women have ever known before in this or any other country. 
The closing of the barrooms throughout the United States has 
relieved large numbers of men of the temptation to spend their 
leisure time and money in various forms of dissipation connected 
with the barroom. Everywhere these working men and women are 
eager for instruction, both for improvement in their vocations and 
for better living and more intelligent citizenship. Not only do they 
take advantage of such opportunities as are offered them by the 
organized agencies of education, but in many places they undertake 
to provide opportunities for themselves in their own time and at 
their own expense. Few of these have had any schooling beyond 
the elementary grades. 


(3) Among the foreign-born population in the United States there 
are many, both of those who have taken out their citizenship papers 
and of those who have not, who, though able to read and write in 
English and are otherwise fairly well educated, know nothing of our 
country, its history, its ideals, the form and spirit of its government, 
of the agricultural and industrial opportunities offered in various 
parts of the country. Much might be done for them through educa- 
tional extension work. 

(4) Within the last few years millions of women have been given 
the franchise and now have all the privileges and responsibilities of 
active citizenship. The adoption of the nineteenth amendment to 
the Constitution of the United States will add millions more. When 
these women become voters, they will, by their ballots or otherwise, 
determine wisely or unwisely the policies of municipality, State, 
and Nation. They are conscientious; they realize they need instruc- 
tion as to the duties and responsibilities of active citizenship and help 
toward an understanding of the many complex and difficult prob- 
lems which, by their ballots, they will help to solve. Through j^heir 
clubs and various other organizations educational extension workers 
can do much for them which could be done very hardly, if at all, in 
any other way. 

(5) There are in the United States approximately twelve and one-half 
million boys and girls between the ages of 16 and 21 who are coming 
to their majority at a time when in order to make a living and assume 
the responsibilities and duties of life and citizenship more knowledge 
and training are needed than ever before. Two and one-half millions 
of these attain their majority each year; less than one-eighth are 
high-school graduates; only a little more than one-fourth have any 
high-school education. That a large per cent of them would take 
advantage of any adequate opportunities offered them for further 
instruction, either in class or by correspondence, is definitely proven 
by the response they make to the advertisements of all kinds of 
correspondence schools conducted for profit and by the efforts 
they make to provide for themselves the means of instruction. Still 
more of them might be induced to do systematic reading under 
direction, or to attend instructive and educational lectures. Such 
opportunities for their instruction might easily be organized on a 
large scale as a part of education extension work. 

I am sure most of the thoughtful men and women of the country 
will agree that the institutions of higher learning, supported by all 
the people, have an important obligation to these millions who can 
never profit directly by the instruction given within their college 


For the purpose of giving information on a subject of such vast 
importance to the cause of education and the general welfare of the 
country at this time, I recommend for publication as a bulletin of 
the Bureau of Education the manuscript transmitted herewith on 
the university extension movement in the United States. This manu- 
script has been prepared at my request by Dr. W. S. Bittner, formerly 
connected with the educational extension division of this bureau and 
now associate director of the extension division of the University of 

Respectfully submitted. 





The informational material upon which this bulletin is based 'was 
collected by the writer while associate director of the division of 
educational extension in the United States Bureau of Education. 
This material now forms part of the collections of the Bureau of 

Special acknowledgment is made to President E. A. Birge, of the 
University of Wisconsin, whose permission was given to print the 
major portion of his paper on Service to the Commonwealth Through 
University Extension. 

Attention is called to the chapter in this bulletin on Engineering 
Extension, written by Dr. J. J. Schlicher, formerly director of 
investigation in the division of educational extension, and to the 
other chapters, acknowledged specifically in footnotes, which were 
in large part the result of his work. Other members of the staff of 
the division, J. J. Pettijohn, A. J. Klein, F. W. Reynolds, and especi- 
ally Mary B. Orvis, gave generous assistance in the preparation of 

this bulletin. 

W. S. B. 


Of the liberal movements dominating the thought of the world 
to-day, the greatest of all is the sweep of education. No phrase or 
dissertation can compass the entire scope or catch all the essential 
elements of the newer education that is shaping itself. But every- 
where one direction is apparent: The trend of education is toward 
the people in mass and group without regard to condition, class, or 
circumstance; toward men, women, and children as human beings 
having without distinction full claim on equal opportunity to enjoy 
the benefits of art and science. Literature, history, philosophy, all 
of the subjects that were once studied by a privileged few, are now 
being sought by a rapidly increasing number who have but recently 
acquired some leisure. The people are calling for knowledge, for 
that education which opens the door to complete living. 

Educational extension is one of the terms that has been applied to 
the movement. It has come into use in the United States to describe 
the numerous ventures designed to meet the demand for knowledge 
and training. This demand is not uniform nor simple. It does not 
come from a single-minded public, from the people of one class. In 
one sense it is not a demand at all, but rather a multitude of impulses 
suggesting or rather seeking a way. Mr. Parke R. Kolbe says: 

The educational system of the United States represents not a uniform plan, devel- 
~ oping in accordance with predetermined laws, but rather the result of innumerable 
separate initiatives whose aims and methods have been dependent upon their attend- 
ant conditions of inception and growth. 

He says that our educational system " looks like a coat of many 
colors when reviewed geographically." 1 

Educational extension includes many devices and instruments of 
instruction. There are innumerable agencies, apart from schools, 
designed to "educate the public/' to "put something over," to tell 
the "truth in advertising," to sell the community a "welfare" idea, 
'to instruct the workman in rules of safety, scientific system, and better 
methods of increasing production. In the crafts and trades men 
devise ways of inculcating in their fellows commonly accepted 
principles of association and mutual action; they teach each other 
new methods, new techniques, and new ways to secure for their 
group accrued benefits of the industry or business. They have their 
chapels, classes, lecturers, teachers, their schoolmasters, and younger 

1 From School and Society, May 31, 1919, " The Colleges in the War," by P. E. Kolbe. 



The employers, managers of great industries, have also appropri- 
ated every essential device of school and university not only to teach 
their workmen but also to educate themselves. They have their 
educational directors, schools, conferences, then- laboratories, their 
service of specialists, then- expert studies, their clubs and fraterni- 
ties. They have tremendously developed the art of advertising, 
which, in the long run and in the best sense, may prove to be the 
basis of the finest technique of educational extension. 

" Education is a curiously pervasive commodity. Analysis always 
proves it to be a part of nearly every large undertaking. It bobs 
up in everybody's bailiwick," says S. P. Capen. 1 He describes how 
the Federal Government had developed educational extension, includ- 
ing the work of the Bureau of Education: "As time has gone on 
other Government departments have found that certain portions of 
their work were educational. By the spring of 1917 the Govern- 
ment's educational activities involved the annual expenditure of 
more than 30 million dollars. They were carried on in no less than 
20 different bureaus, commissions, and departments." Both the 
magnitude and the dispersion of these activities will doubtless cause 
surprise to anyone who has not studied the question. 

Definition of educational extension. Educational extension is not 
readily susceptible of definition, although the thing itself is very 
real. It is closely connected with the growing complexity of inter- 
communication in civilized countries. With every increased facility 
of intercourse through speech, press, and picture, through travel, 
cable, telegraph, telephone, through personal contact, through the 
innumerable mechanical, physical, and spiritual inventions of civili-- 
zation, comes the means of increasing the scope and thoroughness 
of educational extension. 

Of course, that form of education which is associated with schools 
and colleges and the children and youth who attend them has not 
been superseded by this comprehensive though vague new kind of 
education, which transcends all schools and barriers of age. But the 
traditional idea is expanding and changing with the impetus of new 
movements. The importance of considering the nature of educa- 
tional extension is that its complexity, diversity, and ubiquity point 
to inevitable changes in the theory and practice of educational 
institutions as such, not so much perhaps in the primary elements of 
the public school system, but certainly in secondary schools and in 
the institutions of higher learning. 

Not so very many years ago the private university, the State 
university, and the college were largely teaching institutions in a 
definitely limited sense, and the function of research was only grad- 

i School and Society, May 24, 1919, " The Colleges in a Nationalized Educational Scheme," by S. P. Capen. 


ually added. Even now the actual distinction between university 
and college is not thoroughly understood or recognized the dis- 
tinction that makes a university preeminently a discoverer of scientific 
fact, a laboratory and training center for advanced students, and 
a distributor of knowledge rather than a teacher of the youth or a 
school for elementary students of the professions. This latter field 
of endeavor belongs increasingly to the school and college, while the 
true university becomes more and more the graduate center, the 
scientific laboratory, the curator of the arts, and the administrator of 
educational extension. 

Accordingly, the growth of university extension is a logical develop- 
ment of the new demand for universal education. Freedom, self- 
determination, the new democracy, equal suffrage, open diplomacy, 
and all the fresh catch words of the war and after the war, and the 
liberal movements linked with them all have educational implica- 
tions presupposing the diffusion of knowledge among the people. 
Undoubtedly the university, especially the State-owned institution, 
will play a progressively important part in educational extension. 

In the United States and England, university extension is a well- 
defined movement with elaborate institutional organization and 
fairly definite methods and objectives which have broadened and 
deepened during the past 10 years. Inevitably it has reflected the 
spirit of the decade and has consciously taken up the task of develop- 
ing new methods of adult education. 

In spite of the fact that the movement is identified with universities 
and colleges, academic institutions which formerly were remote from 
the people and high above any suggestion of tjommonness and popu- 
larity, it is nevertheless quite ordinary, humble, and matter of fact 
in its intention. The man in the street can understand that univer- 
sity extension is "an organized effort to give to the people not in 
college some of the advantages enjoyed by the one-half of 1 per cent 
who are able to attend campus classes. It reaches out to the clerk, 
the workingman, the teacher, and the public official, and says to each 
'If you can not go to your university, your university will come to 
you.' Agricultural extension makes better farmers, and general 
extension makes better workers, better teachers, and better citizens." 
In addition, the average man readily understands that the State 
university belongs to the Commonwealth and owes service to every 
citizen. He grasps, quickly, too, the nature and value of its serv- 
ices in research, instruction, and information. If there are some 
who naively rate these services too low, and who place the university 
instructor on a par with the characters of a cartoon or the "professor 
of dancing," there are many more who have a deep appreciation of 
the value of all university services; there are many who quickly 
realize the significance of university extension and who are eagerly 
receptive of its benefits. 


A broader view of extension. So, too, for the scientist, the scholar, 
and the man of affairs, university extension has gradually come to 
mean something definite and fine. He sees in the colorless phrase a 
rich implication of truth seeking and truth dissemination, the appli- 
cation of universal science and art to universal living. He sees in 
the newer university a central plant with great resources of investi- 
gation and research, a central group of scientists and specialists in 
technology, put at the service of the State, working for the whole 
citizenship and for each citizen who desires. 

Academic views. Some there are, academicians within the univer- 
sities themselves, who, taking too literally the popular interpretations 
of university extension, rate the movement at ignorant par and decry 
the opening of the college gates to the people anywhere. They fear 
the effect of extension activities, not of course on the people, for even 
the most exclusive professor of the humanities or abstract mathe- 
matics is usually a thorough democrat, but on the seclusion and 
dignity and strength of the university itself. They wonder how a 
research professor can at the same time read, study, search, attend 
committees, and give "popular" lectures. They believe in detach- 
ment, undisturbed seclusion, freedom from practical pressure, as a 
sine qua non to the cultivation of science and art. Their misgivings 
have justification, but only in so far as the conception of "univer- 
sity'' is too limited and narrow. 

" University.''- The true university should have both open gates 
and cloistered libraries, both practical, itinerant messengers and 
theoretical, isolated servants. Ivied walls and dusty laboratories 
may be legitimately, alid picturesquely, part of the same university 
building that houses the office of the correspondence study depart- 
ment. A short course for Boy Scout masters may be held on the 
same campus where a learned conference of sociologists is discussing 
the theory of mob psychology. At the same institution there may be, 
and in many cases there are, groups of administrators concerned with 
a dozen different problems of resident instruction or extension work, 
while hundreds of teachers meet routine classes or correct corre- 
spondence study papers and prepare for community meetings. One 
faculty member may be testifying before a public utility commission, 
another conducting a social survey of a distant city, another preparing 
simple written lessons on prenatal care for mothers, another giving 
vocational guidance to students, and still others may be buried in 
historical files or seeking for a Greek hiatus or for missing data on a 
geological epoch. 

The university is coming more and more to live up to. its name. 
The ideal university and the practical institution growing toward the 
ideal take a high ground and look over a wide field of human endeavor. 

"The phenomenal growth of university extension in the United 


States in the past 10 years may he looked upon as indicative of a new 
interpretation of the legitimate scope of university service/' wrote 
Dean Louis E. Reher, of the University of Wisconsin, in 1916. 

Nevertheless, it is still maintained in many of our learned institutions that higher 
education should be removed from any possible intimacy with the common things 
of life. These institutions repudiate the idea that organized extension of their serv- 
ices may become a worthy function among their acknowledged activities worthy 
not only in enabling them to reach greater numbers than the few who may assemble 
within their gates, but essentially so in its influence upon their own life and growth. 
Though with these, as with the more liberal, pursuit of the truth is the fundamental 
and all-embracing object of existence, they apparently fail to realize that truth does 
not belong to the cloister more than to the shops and homes or to the streets and fields, 
but is inseparably of them all. 

The return of power to the institution is not, however, the main justification of 
university extension. Such justification exists primarily in the fact that the uni- 
versity is the one great source and repository of the knowledge which the people 
all, not merely a few, of the people need in order to reach their highest level of 
achievement and well-being. 

Is it not a very uncharacteristic view of the field of the university which seems to 
limit its functions to those of a sealed storehouse, with facilities for giving out its 
invaluable contents only to the few who may be able to learn the cabalistic passes 
that unlock its doors? More in keeping with the modern spirit is the new slogan of 
unlimited service, which lays upon the university a command to retrieve to the world 
its losses from undiscovered talent and undeveloped utilities and to give freely to 
humanity the pleasures and profits of which so many are deprived by ignorance of 
the work of the masters of art and learning, and of the laws of sane living. For such 
purposes as these the university, in the fullness of its possessions and powers, must 
inevitably be acknowledged to be, in the words of President Van Hise, "tne best 
instrument." l 

The principle of extension accepted. In the four years since 1915, 
the adverse criticism on the part of members of university faculties has 
materially diminished, partly because of the new impulse toward 
adult education received from the war, and partly through the 
momentum of growth; even in the period before the war it was con- 
fined to comparatively few men, usually in departments which had 
little occasion for actual participation in extension work. With only 
two or three exceptions the administrative heads of State universities 
now accept without question the central idea of university extension, 
the principle that the State-owned institution has definite duties to 
perform for the people of the State, duties which are in addition to 
the task of educating the resident students. All State universities do 
perform such duties even when they have not secured substantial 
funds to organize a distinct extension machinery. Most private 
universities and colleges recognize a similar obligation to put their 
resources at the service of the community. The men who determine 
the policies of the institutions are in the great majority committed to 
recognition of extension and are in most States actively promoting it. 

1 Reber, L. E., "University Extension," Annals, American Academy of Political and Social Science, 
Philadelphia, Sept., 1916, Publication reprint No. 1061. 


Frequently the State legislatures, even where the institutions of 
higher learning are not presumably in favor with the politicians, 
have backed substantially with public funds their belief in university 
extension. But no doubt the best approval is that which conies from 
the growing numbers of professors and instructors who have found 
new inspiration in successful community service. 


The possibility of developing the university into something more 
than the traditional institution of higher learning was thought of 
many years ago. The beginnings of university extension date back 
as far as the middle of the nineteenth century. George Henderson, 
formerly secretary of the Philadelphia Society for the Extension of 
University Teaching, wrote in one of his reports of a still earlier time : 

The idea of expanding the influence of the university so as to meet the needs of a 
rapidly growing and progressive people dates back several centuries. Dr. Roberts, 
secretary of the London Society for the Extension of University Teaching, tells us: 
"In a fourteenth-century college endowment deed at Cambridge it is recorded how 
the college was founded out of a desire to see the number of students increased, to the 
end that knowledge, a pearl of great price, when they have found it and made it their 
own by instruction and study in the aforesaid university, may not be hidden under 
a bushel, but be spread abroad beyond the university and thereby give light to them 
that walk in the dark by-ways of ignorance." l 

Beginnings in the United States. The movement first took form as 
a result of the pioneer work of Prof. Stuart, of Cambridge, from 1867 
on, when several English universities took up his lecture method 
with growing success. This early " aristocratic form as yet unmodi- 
fied* was brought to the United States in 1867, and in the years of 
1888 to 1892 showed a rapid development. 2 From then on the move- 
ment declined until about 1906, when new methods were adopted 
and a slow but systematic growth set in. The organized extension 
services established in this period the majority in State universi- 
ties held their " First National University Extension Conference" 
in 1915. At that time representatives of 28 leading colleges and uni- 
versities of the country organized the present National University 
Extension Association. Included in the membership were three 
institutions Columbia, Chicago, and Wisconsin which had con- 
sistently developed their extension work from the time it was begun 
in 1889 and 1892. The association is composed of the general exten- 
sion divisions (institutional memberships) and is not concerned with 
agricultural extension, which has developed independently. 

i Report upon the university extension movement in England, by George Henderson, secretary Phila- 
delphia Society for the Kxtension of University Teaching, in Columbia Papers, ' University Extension 
Pamphlets," New York State Library. 

For full treatment of the early period, see Reber, L. E., "University Extension in the United States," 
Bull. 1914, No. 19, U. S. Bu. of Educ. 


Present status. The movement in its newer phase had a sounder 
basis than the earlier phase which had adopted in a superficial 
fashion the methods of the English universities. Extension work in 
both countries is now on a stable footing, but the extent and possi- 
bilities of the movement in this country are as yet barely compre- 
hended. The extension divisions of Wisconsin, Minnesota, Califor- 
nia, Iowa, and Massachusetts are widely known. In these States 
and in New York, North Carolina, Michigan, Indiana, Texas, Okla- 
homa, Oregon, Utah, and Washington the divisions have attained a 
considerable development. These divisions are in most instances 
administered by State universities. In addition, numerous extension 
services are well developed in these States and in practically all of the 
others by private institutions and State agricultural colleges. 

On the basis of incomplete figures collected by Dr. John J. Schlicher, 1 
it is estimated that university extension is reaching about 120,000 
students through classes in branch centers and through correspond- 
ence study, together with an estimated number of about 2,026,000 
through semipopular lectures; 5,553,000 through motion pictures and 
stereopticon lantern slides; 936,000 through outlines, bibliographies, 
and pamphlets used in debates and public discussion; 308,000 through 
institutes and conferences; 1,265,000 through bulletins and circulars. 
The States are spending over $1,513,000 directly on extension work 
entirely apart from the money spent for agriculture, in addition to 
putting at the disposal of the divisions the resources of the whole 
university plant such resources as the services of faculties, libraries, 
laboratories, and the university publications. 


The most striking characteristic of the English extension move- 
ment is its vital relation to the labor movement. University exten- 
sion in England is actively cooperating with the workingmen's 
societies. Indeed, the whole rejuvenated educational movement 
which secured the enactment of the liberal Fisher bill in the* war 
year of 1918 owes much to labor. Says Mr. I. L. Kandel: 

It is not too much to claim that the representatives of labor and the Workers' Edu- 
cational Association have played the most important part in stimulating public 
opinion, which only three months before the outbreak of the war received with very 
little interest the announcement of the chancellor of the exchequer that plans were 
being prepared for "a comprehensive and progressive improvement of the educational 

Mr. Kandel points out that the reform of education in the island is 
" fundamentally a movement of the people." 2 

1 The Federal Division of Educational Extension, leaflet published by the National University Extension 
Association, June, 1919. 

2 Education in Great Britain and Ireland, by I. L. Kandel, Bui., 1919, No. 9, U. S. Bu. of Educ. 


The readiness of the university authorities and of the labor leaders 
to work with each other, the give-and-take character of their rela- 
tionship, and the rapidly growing interest on the part of the industrial 
classes in cultural education, are facts which no American educator 
can afford to ignore. In spite of the social, political, and educa- 
tional differences between England and America, these facts have 
an immense significance in our movement for extending higher 
education to the masses. To the extension, worker they give a 
glimpse of new realities realities that make the American move- 
ment seem relatively undemocratic and condescending. Here the 
university gives all; the students give little except their fees. In 
England the tutorial classes are actually controlled by the students, 
though they are taught according to university standards and b}^ 
university men. 

University extension in England has not always been wholly 
democratic in spirit. As Herbert W. Horwill said, it regarded labor 
"as clay in the potter's hand." 1 But a new spirit has manifested 
itself, chiefly through the Workers' Educational Association, which, 
according to Henry Seidel Canby, is the " training school whence 
many of the most alert political and economic thinkers in England 
have sprung or been inspired." 2 The adult education promoted by 
this association, with the full approval and sanction of the universities, 
is " distinctly a meeting of minds, designed to train the less skilled 
but with advantages for both (student and teacher)." 2 

The Workers' Educational Association. The Workers' Educational 
Association, which was founded in 1903, has secured labor repre- 
sentatives on the governing bodies and committees of 60 universities. 
Its aim is "to articulate the educational aspirations of labor." 3 It 
consists of a federation of about 2,700 working-class and educational 
bodies, banded together for the purpose of stimulating the demand 
for higher education among working people, to supply their needs 
in cooperation with universities and other educational authorities, 
and to act as a bureau of intelligence upon all matters which affect 
the education of working people. 

Tutorial classes. The best known part of its work is that of the 
University Tutorial Classes. The tutorial class "is really the nucleus 
of a university established in a place where no university exists." 
It consists of a group of not more than 30 students who agree to 
meet regularly once a week for 24 weeks under a university tutor, 
to follow the course of reading outlined by the tutor and to write 
fortnightly essays. 

1 The Nation, May 10, 1919. 

2 Education by Violence, Harpers, March, 1919. 

3 Pamphlet of the Workers' Educational Association, "Its Aims and Ideals," William Morris Press, 


Every university and university college in England has appointed 
a joint committee composed of university representatives and working- 
class representatives to manage these classes. The classes meet for 
two hours each week, one hour being given to lecture and one to give- 
and-take discussion. The students choose the subjects of study 
after consultation with the tutor. 

In the earlier years of the movement the subjects studied consisted almost entirely 
of economic history and economics. But these subjects were interpreted in a very 
catholic sense and included the consideration of a good many matters which could 
not, perhaps, figure largely in a university course in economics. At the present 
time the scope of the classes is tending to widen, and though economic history and 
economics still probably predominate, there are classes in literature, political science, 
general modern history, biology, psychology, and philosophy. 1 

In the year 1913-14 there were 145 standard university tutorial 
classes, containing over 3,200 students, in addition to a large number 
of other classes. The average age of students is about 30. In 1915 
the association had 173 branches, 2,409 affiliated societies, 11,083 
members, and 9 associations in overseas dominions. Its strength 
.was maintained during the war. In 1916-17 there were 10,750 
members; in 1917-18 there were 14,697. 2 

The Oxford report on extension movement. It is characteristic of 
the recent English movement that these tutorial classes are the out- 
growth of recommendations made in the famous Oxford Report of 
of 1908 by a joint committee of university and working-class repre- 
sentatives of Oxford on the Relation of the University to the Higher 
Education of Workpeople. The committee, which in turn was the 
outgrowth of a conference of working-class and educational organi- 
zations, held at Oxford in 1907, consisted of seven representatives of 
Oxford and seven representatives of the Workers' Educational 

The Oxford extension movement had been successful in ''stimulat- 
ing an interest in higher education among a large number of persons, 
especially women, who are unable to study in universities. " 3 It 
had, according to the report, accomplished, ''valuable pioneer work" 
leading to the establishment of universities and colleges, but it had 
not "undertaken to supply the continuous tutorial teaching of a 
university standard" which workpeople desired. The committee 
held that this work must be supplemented and reorganized. 

The Oxford extension movement consisted in extra-mural lectures 
organized by university authorities for students who were not 
members of a university. The work involved the giving of courses 
of lectures, paid for by local committees who selected subjects 

1 Workers' Educational Association, "Its Aims and Ideals." 

2 Fifteenth An. Rep., 1918, The Workers' Educational Association, 16 Harper Street, London. 

3 Oxford Report, pp. 33-37, " Oxford and Working Class Education," second edition, revised, Oxford, 
the Clarendon Press, 1909. 

153448 20 2 


provided rooms, and secured the audience. u The courses run in 
units of 6, 12, or sometimes 24 lectures, delivered at weekly or 
fortnightly intervals. " Students sometimes prepare papers, take 
examinations, and are given certificates. 

Objections to Oxford system. "So long as the system is compelled 
to be financially self-supporting, so long must the lecturer attract 
large audiences," 1 the secretary of the university extension delegacy 
is quoted as saying. Consequently 

both the lectures and the subject to be studied must be chosen not solely or chiefly 
on account of their educative value, but with a view to the probability of their dra\v- 
ing such numbers that the lectures will "pay." If the numbers attending a course 
fall off, however educationally valuable it may be, it must give place to another 
which is more likely to draw a large audience; and as one consequence of this, there 
is sometimes evident a distressing desire on the part of local committees continually 
to attack new subjects, instead of mastering thoroughly the old one. From the 
information before us, we believe that this is not due to any ignorance on the part 
of the centers as to the importance of regular study on systematic lines; on the con- 
trary, we think there is a growing demand for facilities for such study but solely to 
the fact that their better judgment had to yield before such irresistible financial 
considerations. 2 

A second defect, as seen by the committee, is found in the fact 
that the teaching offered is not sufficiently systematic, and in par- 
ticular that- 
individual students rarely receive the personal guidance and supervision which is 
offered to an undergraduate in Oxford and which is all the more necessary among 
work people because in an industrial city the means of knowledge libraries, book- 
shops, and the atmosphere of culture are less easy of access than they are in a univer- 
sity town. 3 

These objections and, in addition, the problem of reducing the 
cost of the system were disposed of by the committee in its sug- 
gestion that, "as far as the working-class centers are concerned, 
they should be recognized as merely subsidiary to the tutorial 
classes." 3 

Tutorial classes require systematic study. Both problems have been 
met by these tutorial classes. They are now financed cooperatively 
by the university, the labor organization, and the board of education. 
Tutorial classes not only offer the student, but require of him, a 
remarkable devotion to systematic and thorough study. Those 
who enroll pledge themselves to study for three years, not to miss a 
single attendance from other than unavoidable causes, and to 
write 12 essays in connection with each of the three sessions of 
24 lessons each. According to Albert Mansbridge : 4 

i Oxford Report, pp. 33-37, "Oxford and Working Class Education," second edition, revised, Oxford, 
at the Clarendon Press, 1909. 

Ibid, p. 37. 

sibids, pp. 37-39. 

An address to the congress of the universities of the Empire, July, 1912. Quoted in pamphlet of Work- 
ers' Educ. Assoc. 


The students have kept their pledges wonderfully. The percentage of attendance 
is often over 90. It is sometimes just on 100 per cent, which figure it has fallen short 
of only because of illness and overtime. The average percentage works out at 75, 
and this during a period in which there have been two general elections and violent 
labor unrest. 

Nearly 700 students had in 1912 completed the three years' 

Reports as to the quality of the work done in the extension classes 
reiterate a frequent commentary on American extension work: It is 
"in some respects better and in others not so good as the work done 
in residence." Unfavorable economic conditions in England, as in 
America, make it extremely difficult for students to do their best 
work. On the other hand, maturity, earnestness, and determination 
go a long way toward overcoming these obstacles. The opinion of 
observers and of tutors seems to be unanimous that both students 
and tutors benefit enormously from the informal, democratic dis- 
cussion, from the give-and-take between men accustomed to academic 
theory and men .accustomed to dealing with the practical problems 
of the working world. As Margaret McMillan wrote : 

There is not only a great body of facts coming always nearer to their (the students') 
consciousness than to that of the "educated," but the actual experience of all the 
play and interplay of economic forces is lightening for them continually a region that 
is dark to the pedant. 1 

Says a leaflet published by the Workers' Educational Association : * 

One important principle laid down by the joint committee is that the teachers 
should actually teach in the universities. This completes the scheme, because it 
insures that the lessons that the teachers learn shall not be lost, but shall pass into the 
ordinary teaching of the universities; and this workpeople consider to be most neces- 
sary. It insures, too, that the teacher shall be in touch with every new advance in 
the study of science. 

Leaders of the English movement insisted from the start that the 
tutors come from the university for the same reason that American 
educators insist upon it; namely, that they shall not be divorced 
from the traditions of learning. In the opinion of the joint committee, 
"it is essential that the extramural students of Oxford should be 
given guidance as systematic as that given those resident at the 
university." The committee recommends that tutors be required 
to lecture regularly at Oxford, as well as in centers organized by the 
university extension delegacy. 

Whatever one's opinion may be as to the need for a movement in 
this country corresponding to the tutorial class movement in England, 
an investigation of the Oxford report, the publications of the Workers' 
Educational Association, and the comments of first-hand investiga- 

1 Education versus Propaganda, published by the Workers' Educ. Assoc. 

2 Oxford Report, p. 39. 


tors like Henry Seidel Canby, lead one to the belief that the move- 
ment offers much in the way of support and suggestion. 

First of all, it gives to extension workers reassurance a new faith 
in the desire of adult human beings for higher education. Working 
men and women of all classes are actually banded together in England 
many thousand strong to secure educational opportunities. And 
many hundreds of them are living up to the difficult pledge of doing 
systematic work of a university .grade for a long period. 

Influence, in America. A study of the English movement also con- 
vinces one of the great obligation that rests upon American univer- 
sities to make a greater effort toward democratizing their extension 
work. Extension divisions have in the main ignored the possible 
contribution of working people and of organized labor to both the 
spirit and the subject matter of higher education. Extension divi- 
sions have offered opportunities to working people according to 
academic lights. But they have not said to working people, as 
Oxford University said in 1907, come and lidp us to work out a 
program for extramural education. And they have not to any 
very great extent emphasized the reciprocal nature of extension 
class work, its enormous possibilities for vitalizing education, for 
relating the university teacher to practical life. To study the 
English movement is to be convinced that the democratization of 
higher education through the cooperation of working people has not 
only greatly increased the amount of service to those who need it 
most but has also increased the quality of service both to intra 
and extra mural students. Moreover, though it began with the 
study of subjects of especial interest to the working classes, it has 
brought about a more universal interest in cultural subjects. 

"There was a time," says Mr. Canby, "when you could stir any 
Britisher to talk M. P., soldier, country gentleman, superintend- 
ent merely by the question, 'What is going to happen in English 
education.' " l While Mr. Canby was talking on the situation that 
existed during the discussion of the Fisher bill in 1917 and 1918, 
he describes an interest that was manifested in numerous educational 
and semieducational movements during the last century and a 
quarter in England on the part of the working classes. 

One of the earliest evidences of that interest was the rise of the 
adult school movement which appeared toward the end of the 
eighteenth century. Its purpose was to organize nonsectarian reli- 
gious instruction for men and women laborers. With the aid of the 
Society of Friends, it established branches in nearly every part of 
England. There were in existence in 1909 over 1,600 schools for 
adults, with a membership of about 100,000. 

i Harpers, March, 1910. 


Contemporaneously with the adult schools, the Mechanics' Insti- 
tutes, which flourished after the industrial revolution, were developed 
in an attempt to meet the need for technical education. 

Cooperative societies. The cooperative societies, which in 1909 in- 
cluded in their membership nearly one-sixth of the whole adult 
population, have for more than half a century played an important 
role in education. The societies developed an elaborate educational 
organization and set aside funds to provide a considerable income 
for educational purposes. They did three kinds of educational work: 
(1) The maintenance of continuation classes for children and young 
persons; (2) the organizing of lectures and classes for adults; and (3) 
the payment of fees and the granting of scholarships. 

The organization of evening schools under the education act of 
1902 caused some of these schools to be handed over to public author- 
ities. While the idea of making better cooperators has been back of 
this movement, the instruction has necessarily been along the lines 
of history, theory, and principles of the movement, with economics 
and industrial and constitutional history so far as they have a bear- 
ing on cooperation. The movement also placed emphasis upon the 
training of men and women to take part in industrial and social 
reforms and civic life generally. Under the leadership of such men 
as Robert Owen and Arnold Toynbee, -the movement has been 
strengthened "in the high line it has taken," says the report. 1 

Workmen's Colleges. Workingmen' s Colleges were established in 
England before the middle of the nineteenth century. In 1842 a 
People's College was started at Sheffield. Similar colleges were es- 
tablished in other cities, the London Working Men's College having 
the greatest success. In 1909 there were 2,387 entries in the college 
classes, 37 per cent of the students being engaged in manual 

Ruskin College was established in 1899 to give workingmen, and 
especially those likely to take a leading part in working-class move- 
ments, an education which might help them in acquiring the knowl- 
edge essential to intelligent citizenship. The attitude of the college 
is one of political and religious neutrality. ' 'The teaching is carried 
on partly by the correspondence school, which is designed to help 
the home reading of those who can not come to Oxford, but the 
chief concern is naturally with those students who reside at the 
college itself." In 10 years 450 students went into residence, repre- 
senting many trades. 

To this well-established movement for higher education among 
the workingmen the war has given great impetus. During the war, 
and since the return of the soldiers after the signing of the armistice, 

1 Oxford report, p. 5. 


the interest of labor and of Government authorities in adult edu- 
cation has persisted and increased. 

Arthur Greenwood states that the British committee of the minis- 
try of reconstruction on adult education, which reported in 1918 

found it impossible to consider adult education apart from those social and industrial 
conditions which determine to a large extent the educational opportunities, the in- 
terests, and the general outlook of men and women. The committee pleads that 
"adult education and, indeed, good citizenship depend in no small degree * * 
upon a new orientation of our industrial outlook and activities." 

Instead of neglect of the worker, and a tacit admission of his inferiority, there is a 
recognition of the rightful claims of the personality of the worker in industry and of 
the justice of his plea for "industrial democracy." x 

British and American progress. Commenting on the program of 
the British Labor Party and on the American labor programs, Robert 
W. Bruere says: 

The relevance of these programs of political and industrial reconstruction is that 
they express the judgment of the most influential body of workers in England and 
America as to the practical means that must be adopted to make the realization of 
their program for the democratization of educational opportunity possible. The 
growing prestige of the fourth estate is the characteristic fact of our generation. 

He discusses the claim that labor is too radical, and concludes : 

Men who dream of the democratization of knowledge, of science and the liberal arts, 
as the chief end of civilized government will not ruthlessly destroy the recognized 
material foundations of civilized life. Rather they will seek to strengthen those 
foundations and broaden them. For it is their eager and instinctive hunger for the 
spiritual values of life that principally accounts for their growing insistence upon the 
democratic principle of industry, for the humanization of industrial processes, for 
the more equal distribution of the benefits that accrue from the national surplus. 
Their programs of political and social reconstruction are inspired by their realization 
that it is only when men are guaranteed equality of educational opportunity that any 
man can be certain of access to the spiritual banquet of life. * * 

The test of governmental capacity will increasingly be the ability of those in posi- 
tions of authority to find ways and means for the democratization of educational 
opportunity. 2 

Interest in cultural education. In the United States it has fre- 
quently been assumed that the workman's interest in education was 
largely utilitarian; indeed, it has been considered desirable that 
school, college, and university curricula should be u more practical"; 
that the teacher, the clerk, the business man would take extension 
courses only when they would prove of advantage in " getting on/' 
of immediate pecuniary use, or at least capable of eventual transla- 
tion into material success. An opposite conclusion may be the 
right one. It may be that the average man and woman in this 
country, even the so-called uneducated workingman, may be desirous 
of educational opportunity of quite another kind. In England such 

Development of British Industrial Thought, Atlantic Monthly, July, 1919. 

2 The New Nationalism and Education, p. 181, by Robert W. Bruere, Harper's, July, 1919 


seems to be the fact, for that is the observation of Mr. Fisher, father 
of the English education bill, who says: 

I notice also that a new way of thinking about education has sprung up among more 
reflecting members of our industrial army. They do not want education in order 
that they may rise out of their own class, always a vulgar ambition; they want it 
because they know that, in the treasures of the mind, they can find an aid to good 
citizenship, a source of pure enjoyment, and a refuge from the necessary -hardships of a 
life spent in the midst of clanging machinery in our hideous cities of toil. 1 

No doubt Americans owe their interest in cultural education to 
much the same causes as do the English, but certainly not to class 
contentedness. American workmen do have the " vulgar ambition" 
to rise, and they are recognizing the importance of both practical 
and cultural education as aids to their individual enterprise. 

Mr. Fisher adds, with reference to the features of the English 
education act which fix certain attendance limits and educational 
standards : 

We argue that the compulsion proposed in this bill will be no sterilizing restriction 
of wholesome liberty, but an essential condition in a larger and more enlightened 
freedom, which will tend to stimulate civic spirit, to promote general culture and 
technical knowledge, and to diffuse a steadier judgment and a better informed opinion 
through the whole body of the community. 

Herbert W. Horwill states that there is unanimous testimony that 
the Workers' Educational Association presents a spectacle of intel- 
lectual energy and enthusiasm which finds no parallel among the 
leisure classes. 2 The association aims at the satisfaction of the 
intellectual, esthetic, and spiritual needs of the workman student 
and thus gives him a fuller life. 

George Edwin MacLean wrote, in 1917, with reference to both the 
English and American attitude toward education: 

To-day the demand of the workingman, which can but perpetuate university 
extension and which is full of hope for democracy, is for something more than " bread 
and butter " education. It is a call for a liberal or human education, which is not so 
much "a means of livelihood as a means of life." 3 

He appends to his discussion of the English movement some 
pertinent questions: 

The American workingman has had faith in his schools and has trusted especially 
the colleges and universities. Has not the time come for the labor organizations to 
strengthen their membership, and particularly their leadership, by courses of study 
conducted in connection with these institutions with the impartial spirit of truth 
believed to be preserved in them? May not these organizations assure the perpetua- 
tion of the federation of labor and of higher learning in America? 

1 From quotation, p. 79, Bull. Bu. of Educ., 1919, No. 9, Education in Great Britain and Ireland by 
I. L. Kandel. 

" The Nation, May 10, 1919. 

3 Studies in Higher Education in England and Scotland, by George E. MacLean, U. S. Bu. of Educ 
Xo. 16, 1917. 


Nietzsche. It would be instructive to compare with the liberal 
estimates of education now prevalent in Europe and America some 
of the pre-war opinions of continental statesmen and educators. 
It is perhaps unfair to quote from Nietzsche, but some of his start- 
lingly wild and bizarre statements afford by contrast an illuminating 
opportunity for securing perspective in estimating the significance 
of present-day conceptions of education and democratic university 
extension. J. M. Kennedy, in the introduction to a translation of 
Nietzsche's "The Future of Our Educational Institutions/' says: 

Nietzsche's idea was ''that a bread-winning education is necessary for the majority," 
but "true culture is only for a few select minds which it is necessary to bring together 
under the protecting roof of an institution that shall prepare them for culture, and for 
culture only." 

Xietzsche says: 

Why this education of the masses on such an extended scale? Because the true 
German spirit is hated, because the aristocratic nation of true culture is feared, be- 
cause the people endeavor in this way to drive single great individuals into self- 
exile, so that the claims of the masses to education may be; so to speak, planted down 
and carefully tended, in order that the many may in this way endeavor to escape 
the rigid and strict discipline of the few great leaders, so that the masses may be 
persuaded that they can easily find the path for themselves following the guiding 
star of the States. 1 

The philosopher writes: 

I have long accustomed myself to look with caution upon those who are ardent 
in the cause of the so-called " education of the people" in the common meaning of 
the phrase. * * They were born to serve and to obey; and every moment in 
which the limping or crawling or broken -winded thoughts are at work shows us clearly 
out of which clay nature molded them and what trade-mark she branded thereon. 2 

He talks about "a natural hierarchy in the realm of the intellect." 
His conclusion is: 

The education of the masses can not therefore be our aim, but rather the education 
of a few selected men for great and lasting works. 3 


The war has profoundly affected liberal opinion in every country. 
People have come to think less provincially. Not only have Ameri- 
cans been introduced to the international point of view an intro- 
duction that has not yet ripened into thorough familiarity but 
more significantly, as far as education is concerned, they have ac- 
quired a deeper realization of national unity. Proposals for reor- 
ganization of our educational system are no longer mere suggestions; 
they bid fair to find increasingly substantial expression and to shape 
legislation for the purpose of vitalizing local administration and re- 

1 Friedrich Nietzsche, On the Future of Our Educational Institutions, translated, witn introduction, by 
J. M. Kennedy. T. N. Foulis, Edinburgh, 1909 
a Ibid., p. 74. 
Ibid., p. 75. 


moving the inequalities of educational opportunity in the various 
sections of the country. 

During the war the idea that the whole nation spiritually, physi- 
cally, industrially was on the firing line, rather than the soldiers 
alone, was thoroughly driven home. It has not, however, been widely 
recognized that the means of enforcing this idea, that the propaganda 
to win the war, was actually a wholesale adoption of educational 
extension methods. All the instruments and devices laboriously 
created or appropriated by the university extension movement 
during the last decade were utilized to mobilize public opinion and 
to teach the soldiers, sailors, and industrial fighters, and to train 
them in the practical technique necessary to make their blows 
effective against the opposing forces. 

War-time education. The war emergency revealed the necessity 
for the education of the people of the United States in the purposes, 
causes, and results of various policies of the Federal Government 
and of our allies and enemies as well. Some of the Federal bodies 
created for war purposes, such as the War Industries Board, the War 
Trade Board, the Fuel Administration, the Food Administration, 
and the Committee on Public Information, undertook and carried 
on through their own organizations in the States, through cooperat- 
ing State agencies which they found in existence, and through private 
organizations, energetic and more or less effective campaigns of 
education along the lines of political and economic theory and 
practice. The War and Navy Departments, the Emergency Fleet 
Corporation and other Federal agencies planned, created, and con- 
ducted special training schools along industrial and vocational lines. 
In the educational war work of all kinds the State educational 
systems and the institutions of higher learning, both technical and 
academic, contributed equipment, direction, and a large proportion 
of the experienced teaching personnel. 

New educational projects. rDr. A. J. Klein says: 

During the war the permanent educational institutions merged their efforts with 
those of less experienced persons and organizations which entered the field temporarily 
and in many cases without distinct consciousness of the real educational value of the 
work to be done. The result has been a very greatly increased interest in and knowl- 
edge on the part of the public of educational extension needs in the United States. 
From the realization of these needs, some important projects and proposals for Federal 
aid and encouragement to various lines of educational work have come from permanent 
educational forces with technical experience and knowledge of educational adminis- 
tration and methods. But many of the projects proposed have come also from persons 
and organizations with little understanding of the practical questions involved and 
with still less experience in continuous educational work. Some of those educational 
projects have already been started by departments of the Federal Government, and 
estimates looking to the continuance of the new work have been embodied in their 
appropriation bills or in special laws. 


Confusion. In some lines work has been undertaken and is being carried on inde- 
pendently by several departments of the Government. This has brought confusion 
and uncertainty to the permanently established State educational agencies. As one 
State superintendent of education expressed it, "I should welcome any kind of 
assistance and. aid, as would every school officer, providing we may know 'Who is 
Who,' and not be compelled to be looking now to this authority and now to that 
authority for advice and counsel." This confusion has arisen from the eagerness of 
Federal departments to serve the country, from the great demand and urgent necessity 
for educational work, and from failure to form the educational program in cooperation 
with and to meet the needs of those who are in the States now charged with the respon- 
sibility of educating the boys and girls and adults whom Federal educational enter- 
prises wish to reach. 

Many of those educational projects have for their purpose the instruction and assist- 
ance to better citizenship of persons, minors and adults, not regular attendants at the 
public schools or institutions of higher education. The war educational program was 
most concerned with this class of persons. In peace time the university extension 
divisions of the States had been formed for this very purpose and when the war came 
they had had years of experience, much material and many practical, well-developed 
methods to meet the new pressure. 

Demand for a Federal program. It was natural, therefore, that the State extension 
divisions should take a most prominent part in educational war work. A review of 
the extent to which their resources were thrown into the work and a list of the leaders 
whom they contributed would show how important the expert service of the univer- 
sity extension divisions in the States was in furthering the war program. 

It is also natural that the university extension divisions of the States should be 
interested in the steps that are taken to make certain features of this war work perma- 
nent, and that they should insist on a Federal program for after-the-war educational 
activities among the persons whom it was their business to instruct during peace times. 

The university extension divisions have the experience and knowledge needed 
to carry on such work, and, since they are permanently established in the State 
educational systems, the burden of carrying on the labor of the programs inaugurated 
by enthusiastic and well-meaning persons will ultimately fall upon the extension 
divisions in large part, or require the setting up of duplicate administrative machinery. 

If it is impossible in the present situation for them to have a determining voice in 
choosing which of those educational burdens shall be prepared for their shoulders, 
the minimum of assistance and knowledge which they demand is that the Federal 
Government establish some agency for keeping them informed of educational exten- 
sion activities in other States and of the resources, aids, and agencies in the Federal 
Government itself which are at their disposal. 

Federal aid. For agricultural extension Federal aid has been provided most liber- 
ally, but no provision has been made for other important fields of extension work. 
Training and instruction of adults and others in subjects of civic and cultural value, 
in their professions, trades, and vocations, must not be neglected if we are to maintain 
intelligent Americanism . Proficiency in their work, knowledge of the latest advances 
in their lines of endeavor, understanding of the constantly fresh National and State 
and community problems, training for good citizenship of town and city inhabitants 
are as essential to the preservation of the prosperity and well-being of the agricultural 
classes and of all other classes in the Nation as is the education of the farmer himself. 

For vocational education Federal aid has been provided through the Board of 
Vocational Education, and the board desires to utilize the university extension 
agencies in the States in the promotion of certain phases of vocational training. 1 

i Excerpts from mimeograph bulletin, "Summary Statement of Educational Extension," by Dr. A. J. 


When the universities turned their energies to the task of mobil- 
izing public opinion in support of the Government, the personnel 
of the extension divisions was extensively drafted for war service 
in the States, at Washington, and abroad. Speakers' bureaus of 
several State councils of defense were directed by extension officers. 
Every State university furnished numerous speakers in support of 
the Liberty loans, the Red Cross, etc. Thousands of motion-picture 
films and lantern slides on the war were displayed in every part of 
the States through the universities. In several States the training 
of Red Cross home-service workers was administered by the exten- 
sion divisions; special training courses were given men in camps, 
and a large number of other war-service activities were conducted. 

The adaptability of the extension machinery to national needs 
was proved during the war. The State divisions gave emergency 
courses in military French, in camouflage, in typewriting, in auto- 
mobile mechanics, in food conservation, in home nursing, in recon- 
struction problems, in war aims, and in many other subjects of 
immediate national importance. The extension division of the 
University of Wisconsin prepared courses in English for the men at 
the Great Lakes training station and provided an instructor to 
advise the teachers at the station. Similar instances of extension 
division war service could be multiplied indefinitely. 

War interrupted extension work. The war-service work of the 
extension divisions seriously interrupted the normal activities in 
the States. The regular instructional work was continued with 
difficulty, through temporary arrangements carried out by inex- 
perienced substitutes and by the extraordinary efforts of the small 
local clerical staff directed by officers on leave of absence. 

Indiana eliminated its established community welfare service, 
institutes, and conferences. The director and two bureau chiefs gave 
full time to war service. Wisconsin discontinued community insti- 
tutes and other activities; the chief of a department gave full time 
to direction of a Red Cross division. Other university extension 
divisions diverted their organization to war service. 


Feeling that the university extension divisions had proved their 
adaptability to war-time and reconstruction needs, the National 
University Extension Association asked President Wilson to come to 
the assistance of the divisions in the emergency. The President set 
aside $50,000 for university extension work in a division of educational 
extension to be administered through the Bureau of Education in 
the Department of the Interior. This was done for several purposes, 
all of pressing importance. The State divisions needed a central 
clearing house to assist them in meeting the problems of recon- 


struction. They needed assistance in reorganizing the extension 
work interrupted by the war. It was clear that a national division 
could salvage some of the educational resources and materials pro- 
duced during the war. Further, the adoption of educational exten- 
sion methods by Federal bureaus, national associations, - and other 
organizations threatened to create confusion and waste in the States, 
and the national division could assist in establishing workable 
methods and real cooperation. 

The Federal division of educational extension was established in 
December, 1918. 1 The President provided the funds for its main- 
tenance out of his emergency appropriation, with the understanding 
that the division would make the salvaged materials available to the 
States through the machinery of the extension divisions which were 
already established. At the same time the division was to act as a 
clearing house for all matters of importance to the State extension 
divisions and to the public libraries, particularly upon information 
of special value to educational institutions during the immediate 
post-war period. 

During the six months of its existence the division succeeded in 
organizing this service and in distributing to the States some of the 
many Federal documents, war education courses, and motion-picture 
films available in the several departments. It gave aid to the State 
universities by distributing data on the methods and activities of the 
different divisions. It sent out announcements and publicity ma- 
terials, statistical data, budgets for extension divisions, and digests 
of educational bills. It made available selected "package libraries" 
of materials for the promotion of open-minded, impartial stud}' and 
discussion of such questions as Government ownership and operation 
of railroads, Government control of prices, and reconstruction 
measures. It distributed special references and bibliographies, uni- 
versity extension publications, information concerning the resources 
offered by Federal departments, and suggestions for cooperative 
efforts in educational extension. It also promoted Americanization 
by gathering the experience of people who have been working among 
foreigners, and of educators, and by making that experience avail- 
able in summaries to the universities and State departments of 

The division carried on the work through its staff of experienced 
educators and research men familiar with the resources of depart- 
ments at Washington, and with those of the many semipublic agencies 
such as the Red Cross and the other educational organizations. 
The four main avenues of service established corresponded to the 
avenues that have already proved themselves in the States exten- 

1 This chapter is copied, with a few minor changes, from The Federal Division of Educational Extension, 
by Mary B. Orvis, leaflet published by the National University Extension Association, June, 1919. 


sioii teaching, visual instruction, community-center promotion, 
and public discussion and library service. 

The director, in addition to the work of organizing the division, 
gave advisory assistance to university authorities in the States, 
particularly to those establishing' or developing new extension 
services. The director was called to Florida at the request of the 
legislature to appear before a joint session to present the facts con- 
cerning university extension. An appropriation of $50,000 was 
granted. He also conferred with legislative and faculty committees 
in Tennessee, Alabama, Oklahoma, North Dakota, Montana, Iowa, 
Ohio, Missouri, and Minnesota. Eight other States asked for similar 

The heads of each of the four sections of the division performed 
for their particular avenue of extension a service similar to that 
performed by the director for the whole division; they kept officials 
in the States informed as to the development of the work in each 
State, and offered to each the benefit of the knowledge that a central 
office alone can accumulate. 

Promotion of extension teaching. The 120,000 persons who are 
studying through the State extension divisions are reached by means 
of correspondence study and classes held by university instructors 
in ' ' extension centers." The Massachusetts department of university 
extension had 400 students in a gas automobile course which it gave 
in Boston; the Wisconsin division had about 2,000 students in 
engineering courses in Milwaukee. Thousands of farm men and 
women and small- town residents are studying such subjects as 
English composition, literature, history, and hygiene by correspond- 
ence. This work was promoted and standardized by the Federal 

One hundred and forty-one different courses prepared for war-time 
instruction purposes were obtained from Government bureaus and 
departments by the division and passed out for continued use. 
These courses include simple and technical, vocational, cultural, and 
scientific subjects, and vary in size from pamphlets of a few pages 
to large and elaborately illustrated books. Engineering schools have 
found such courses as those of orientation and gunnery of value in 
the teaching of map making and the principles of mechanics. Exten- 
sion divisions which give courses in vocational subjects are using 
large numbers of the Telephone Electrician's Manual, the Auto 
Mechanics and Auto Drivers' Instruction Manual, and the Motor 
Transportation Handbook, called to their attention by this service 
and furnished by the Government departments responsible for their 

The War Department cooperated with the division of educational 
extension by putting at its disposal the psychological tests and sys- 
tems of classification of personnel developed during the war, with a 


view to modifying them foi % civilian uses and making them available 
to the university extension divisions. 

Soldiers' education. Arrangements were made with the Federal 
Board for Vocational Education whereby the Federal board will use 
to the fullest possible extent the resources of the extension divisions 
in the rehabilitation and reeducation of soldiers, sailors, and marines 
who are compensable; and the extension divisions will cooperate 
with the Federal board by assisting in the guidance of men who are 
not legally compensable, but who need or desire educational assist- 

The division arranged with the Institute of International Educa- 
tion and other agencies to assist the universities in making their 
correspondence courses available to foreign students and to American 
residents abroad. Preliminary arrangements were made for secur- 
ing through the institute English extension workers for lecture tours 
in this country. 

A conference between the Red Cross and extension directors was 
arranged to discuss the whole question of cooperation between the 
State branches of the Red Cross and the State extension divisions. 

Health education. A cooperative arrangement between the Red 
Cross, the American Health Association, and other bodies interested 
in health education was projected whereby popular correspondence 
courses on health topics may be prepared and offered by the 
extension divisions of the States, free of cliarge to all the inhabitants 
of the United States. 

The assistance of the National Automobile Chamber of Commerce 
was secured in the collection and preparation of course material on 
road transportation and traffic, as distinct from road construction. 
Extension divisions and universities have expressed their desire for 
such material in order that they may train the highway traffic 
experts who will be needed in the wise development and maintenance 
of a unified highway, railroad, and waterways system for the United 

These examples illustrate the possibilities of the Federal division 
as a clearing house and cooperative agency for adult education. 

Visual instruction service. Over 3,000 school buildings contain 
projection lanterns, according to a recent survey made by the division 
of educational extension. Many others will be equipped if school 
authorities can be assured of a supply of films. Each one of these 
schools is a potential theater for educational motion pictures lent 
by the United States Government and by many public and semi- 
public agencies. The division acted as a collecting and distributing 
center for such films. It completed arrangements with extension 
divisions equipped in the States for the distribution of films sent out 
from Washington. Many reels were sent out to State extension 


divisions ready to distribute them. In States where there existed no 
central agency for visual instruction, the division negotiated with 
other departments, such as the State department of public instruc- 
tion, for its establishment. The division did not distribute pictures 
directly to the users, but it operated through State machinery. 

About 4,300 reels of motion pictures and 25,000 stereopticon lan- 
tern slides were acquired by gift or by loan during the period from 
January to May, 1919. These pictures represent in many cases 
merely the first consignment of lots of material which are to come 
to the Bureau of Education from the different governmental depart- 
ments. The War Department agreed to supply the division of 
educational extension with enough duplicate negatives and positive 
prints to make a series of 12 motion pictures on the subject of the 
achievements of the war. The topics constituting this series are as 
follows: Camouflage in modern war; the work of the American 
engineers; lumbering in. France; military communication; sports and 
entertainments for the soldiers; the transportation of men and sup- 
plies; the care of the wounded; modern ordnance; chemical warfare; 
feeding the Army; the Air Service; keeping the Army well. 

Practically all motion pictures released by the Committee on 
Public Information during the war were transferred to the division 
.for nation-wide circulation through educational channels. 

The National Automobile Chamber of Commerce agreed to coop- 
erate with the division in the production and distribution of a series 
of pictures on good roads. Many industrial firms turned over films 
to the division, which put them into circulation through the State 
extension centers. 

The f ollowing report from the director of the division of educational 
extension, sent to the directors of extension and to officers in charge 
of motion-picture distribution in the States, gives a summary of the 
status of the film service of the United States Bureau of Education : 


Motion-picture films gathered to date (feet) . . 6, 120, 000 

Distributed to date (feet) . '. 3, 950, 000 

Centers having received films to date 35 

New centers now ready 3 

Centers still needed in order to cover United States 16 

Additional film for which negotiations are under way or which have been actually 
promised will be received in considerable quantity before January 1, 1920. 


Though efforts for an appropriation with which to continue the division failed, 
arrangements have been made by which the service in visual instruction will have 
attention. Two of the officers of the section, Mr. F. W. Reynolds and Mr. W. H. Dud- 
ley, are retained on the staff of the Bureau of Education, and though not permanently 
at Washington, will exercise such responsibility for the work as they can. Mr. R. E. 


Egner, film inspector and shipping and record clerk, is to remain in Washington in 
immediate charge of the activities under way and in contemplation. 


The motion pictures sent out are free and must be shown free. Other conditions 
are that they be kept as busy as their interest warrants, that they be kept in proper 
repair, and that a record of their use be kept in the files of the center and be sent regu- 
larly to the Washington office. 

The pictures in the main are deposited indefinitely with the centers. In the case 
of some of them there may be a request for a return to the Washington office or for a 
transfer to some other State center, but the terms of any such request will take the 
point of view of the center having possession. No plan for a definite and vigorous 
use of the material will be upset. 


The material sent out can be regarded only as a basis of a service in visual instruction. 
It will not in and of itself constitute a service. But in this connection attention 
should be called to the value of the material. That dealing with the war will increase, 
not decrease, in interest as time passes. It has been the plan of the officers of the sec- 
tion to get even more of this war material out to the centers, enough to make a pic- 
torial review of the war by topics. The hope now is that this plan may be realized. 
Toward the plan, the material already sent out is a beginning. 

Centers are not at liberty to make any changes in the pictures belonging to the 
series "The Training of a Soldier." The war features and the war reviews may be 
changed, however, and it may be that some of the centers will wish to use this mate- 
rial for experimental work in the assembly of pictures of their own. 

All in all, the material should have lasting and real value. It is in the hope that it 
will have this that it has been salvaged and distributed. 


The various distributing centers will discover many interesting ways in which 
to use the materials. It is requested that they report such discoveries to the Wash- 
ington office, which, serving as a clearing house, will undertake to send accounts of 
them to other centers. This is important. The cooperation of the centers in an 
effort to secure as complete usefulness of materials as possible is earnestly requested. 


The officers of the section and the Washington office are still at work to secure 
additional material for the various centers. In this work they have the hearty 
cooperation of the newly organized National University Extension Association 
(Inc.), which is maintaining an office in Washington. 

Word as to new material and as to the conditions under which it may be obtained 
may be expected at any time from the officers of the section, from the Washington 
office, or from the secretary of the National University Extension Association (Inc.) 


The section has had the warmest support from the departments of the Government , 
from allied organizations, and from various commercial and industrial companies. 
It also wishes to extend thanks to the distributing centers. from which it has also 
had hearty support. 

The section itself will have reward lor its effort if, as is more than likely, a Federal 
permanent service in visual instruction is finally established. 


Community center sendee. The Community Center, a local demo- 
cratic organization for community advancement, is another means 
of education that has been developed through the extension division 
machinery of the States and through the State departments of edu- 
cation. It is the logical place for showing educational pictures to 
adult audiences. It brings people together for the common good. It 
strengthens the existing freedom and self-government of the citizens. 

Relations with 42 States were established by the division of educa- 
tional extension for the promotion of the community centers, and 
arrangements were made to cooperate with the authorities in the 
remaining States. This section of the division was in contact with 
over 1,000 different local communities where community center organ- 
izations were being started, and more than 100 centers were projected 
in the spring of 1919. Members of the division were constantly in 
the field holding conferences in regard to this work. Outlines and 
plans for community organization, together with suggested programs 
for meetings, were distributed to the communities. 

Public discussion and library service. In practically all of the 
States the colleges and universities are carrying on an information 
and library service which reaches hundreds of thousands of people, 
giving them facts and sources of information. Nineteen extension 
divisions answered nearly 60,000 requests for information last year. 
This service disseminates information secured from authoritative 
sources on such public matters as municipal development, child wel- 
fare, public health, civics, and on miscellaneous subjects of interest 
to individuals, such as personal hygiene. This service is practical 
and specific. It meets a widespread demand for information the 
same demand that floods Washington with requests for information 
on every conceivable subject. The State service needs a central 
agency which can supply materials and coordinate resources. The 
Federal division rendered such a service. 

The package library. All of the State universities and many other 
institutions carry on some kind of public discussion work. Large 
numbers of people are served, many of them members of high-school 
and college debating societies, -city councils, women's clubs, civics 
clubs, and miscellaneous organizations. The extension divisions 
prepare, with the assistance of university faculties, lists of important 
subjects, bibliographies; and study outlines, and lend them to in- 
quirers. Accompanying this specially prepared material go package 
libraries, which consist of from 5 to 100 pieces of literature, generally 
gathered together from Federal, State, and local public agencies, as 
well as from private associations and from magazines and newspapers. 

The division of educational extension acted as a clearing house 
upon methods of improving the machinery for this State service and 
as an agency for distributing informational publications to each 

1 53448 20 3 


State. It sent out in six months 14,700 pieces of material on cur- 
rent topics for inclusion in package libraries. This material was sent 
to the State divisions and has been lent by them many times to 
clubs and individuals. Thirty-eight different publications on the 
League of Nations, pro and con, or about 6,200 pieces, were sent 
out in two months' time. Fifty different publications, or about 
1,500 pieces, on labor and reconstruction were sent in the same time, 
as were 30 different publications, or about 1,200 pieces, on the Gov- 
ernment and the railroads. 

These materials were made up by the State bureaus into package 
libraries, which give information on both sides of controversial 
questions. They usually contain lists of Government publications, 
programs, and statements by the interests especially affected, as well 
as pamphlets and magazine articles. The bibliographies give addi- 
tional information of special value to extension divisions. 

Use of Federal publications. A particular effort was made to 
bring to the notice of the extension division agents the United States 
Government publications. Special investigations, reports of com- 
missions, monographs issued by the Government bureaus, important 
statements of plans or reports on the operation of governmental 
agencies, speeches in Congress, hearings before committees are the 
very substance on which the policies of the National Government 
are based. All these and many others can be obtained free from 
governmental departments; others can be secured from the Super- 
intendent of Documents. Most of them are practically unknown, 
however, even to intelligent people who take serious interest in 
public affairs. The library of the Superintendent of Documents 
contains over 200,000 separate publications. To make the people 
somewhat familiar with this material and to give them a first-hand 
acquaintance with the work done by the National Government was 
one of the primary aims of the division of educational extension. 

Reference of inquiries. In order to avoid futile reference from one 
Federal bureau to another, the division made arrangements with 
the inquiry office of the Department of Labor to refer inquiries on 
current public questions and other matters not easily answered in 
Washington to the university extension divisions in the States from 
which the inquiries come. This arrangement was designed to serve 
the additional purpose of acquainting the public with the informa- 
tional resources of their State institutions. 

The division established a working library of university extension 
publications of every kind. This library affords ready reference to 
any phase of the work offered in the United States and in England. 


The division also issued, among others, the following mimeograph 
bulletins : 

Adult Education: A brief statement of suggestive matter to be found in the report of 
the adult education committee to the English Minister of Reconstruction. 

A Survey of the Public Discussion Work of the States, with explanations of successful 

An Exhibit of United States Publications. 

Budgets for Public Discussion Bureaus. 

Package Library and Club Service: A summary of work done by extension divisions 
and public library commissions. 

National Library Service. A direct service for the 18,000 libraries 
in the United States was maintained in the division. The libraries 
need to know more about the printed informational material issued 
by the Government. National Library Service helped librarians 
i not only to secure that material, but also to familiarize themselves 
and their patrons with it. One Government department alone dis- 
tributed last year nearly one hundred million copies of publications 
on. hundreds of subjects. Obviously, no librarian can keep up with 
this output; yet the public has a right to expect the librarian to 
hand out the right information at the right time. The librarians 
have requested and demanded for years such a clearing house as 
National Library Service rendered through its printed pamphlets. 
Bulletins were issued telling of the work done and the services offered 
to librarians by the following governmental departments: Agri- 
culture, Commerce, Labor, Treasury, and Interior. Each bulletin 
contains the story of the department, followed by news notes of the 
various activities. These notes contain material of current interest 
to librarians and are selected, prepared, and submitted by the 
information services of the different Government departments. 
Another feature of the bulletins is an up-to-date selected list of current 
available printed matter, posters, slides, and reels of films. 

Training Americanization workers. A tremendous amount of 
patriotic enthusiasm engendered by the war turned naturally last 
fall to the problem of making better citizens of our foreign-born 
people. Letters of inquiry sent out to the university presidents of 
the country last December by the division of educational extension, 
however, revealed the fact that only a very few institutions were 
awake to their opportunities and obligations in a movement obvi- 
ously educational. All were anxious to do their part when their 
attention was called to the practical work that could be done. The 
most obvious duty was that of training special teachers for the 
foreign born. 

The division immediately gathered together what information it 
could about the methods in use and sent it out in mimeographed 
ulletins to the universities and State education departments. It 



also assembled a large collection of programs and pamphlets issued 
by State councils of defense, State Americanization bureaus, private 
agencies, and universities and colleges. In most cases pamphlets 
could be secured in sufficient quantity to distribute them to a mail- 
ing list of about 250 of the leading educators of the country. 

Three hundred copies each of several valuable publi cations and 
English courses were secured from the Massachusetts extension 
department, which was a pioneer in this movement. The California 
State commission on immigration and housing also sent the division 
300 copies of its study of the methods of Americanization. The 
extension division of Iowa contributed several hundred copies of a 
suggestive pamphlet for work among young people in high school 
and college. Reed College, Oregon, gave 300 copies of an excellently 
illustrated statistical survey of American cities, showing illiteracy 
and foreign-born populations, along with other significant facts. 
These are but a few of the many organizations that have helped 
each other through the division of educational extension. 

About 11,000 pieces of Americanization literature, almost entirely 
of concrete specific value in planning courses for teaching immigrants, 
were sent out to educators in six months. The division also answered 
daily specific requests for assistance in such matters as the conduct 
of surveys of civic instruction in State high schools, the finding of 
suitable university instructors to train teachers, and the finding of 
suitable courses in universities for individuals desiring to attend 
summer sessions. 

In Massachusetts, Colorado, and Wisconsin the extension divisions 
have charge of State programs of Americanization. In other States 
the divisions are doing more and more of the work. Wherever 
educational institutions are doing Americanization work, they can 
profit by the clearing house service of some central agency. 

At least 19 universities and colleges gave courses in Americaniza- 
tion work during the summer of 1919. The division of educational 
extension received ample testimony to the fact that it appreciably 
assisted in establishing this new type of instruction. The fact that 
in the first six months of its existence it had the opportunity to per- 
form this very special kind of service for the Nation indicates some- 
thing of the possibilities of a Federal division in future emergencies. 


University presidents and the members of the National University 
Extension Association were desirous of continuing the work started 
by the temporary Federal division. Accordingly the Secretary of 
the Interior included in his estimates for the department an item to 
provide funds with which the Bureau of Education could develop a 
permanent extension service. Congress, however, did not appro- 


priate the funds. A number of bills have been introduced to secure 
the establishment of a Federal clearing house for university extension. 

In the summer of 1919, the directors of State university divisions 
agreed that, pending congressional action, a substantial agency 
should be created to continue the Washington clearing-house work. 
They worked out a plan in detail and created the National University 
Extension Association (Incorporated), with an office in the capital. 
The association, incorporated under the laws of the District of 
Columbia, is supported by the State extension divisions and by fees 
from different classes of membership. Its work is projected along 
lines similar to those followed previously by the Federal division. 
It cooperates with the staff of the Bureau of Education, supple- 
menting the work the latter is able to do through the Government 

The following is a condensed statement of the work the incor- 
porated association is undertaking: 

3 . It will collect and distribute data and material on the methods and activities 
of educational extension work in the United States and abroad. 

2. It will make available selected materials prepared by educational, governmental, 
and other organizations on questions of general interest, such as Government owner- 
ship, price control, reconstruction measures, etc. 

3. It will supply announcements and published material, statistical data, and 
digests of educational matters of special interest to extension and public welfare 

4. It will answer inquiries from members with reference to governmental activi- 
ties, legislation, and administrative policies, in so far as educational extension inter- 
ests are concerned. 

5. It will make official and semiofficial connective relationships for cooperative 
educational extension work between member institutions and branches of the Federal 
Government or other organizations. 

6. It will serve as a center through which cooperative efforts of member institu- 
tions may function. For example, extension lecturers on special subjects desired 
by a number of member organizations may be engaged through this office in long- 
time blocks, thereby increasing the bargaining strength of the members and elimi- 
nating most of the risk charges, the excessive overheads and traveling expenses, and 
making the final terms for the community using the services of the lecturers rela- 
tively low. A small fee to care for the office expense of such work will be charged. 
A similar advantage and arrangement can be had for some of the visual instruction 

7. It will publish the results of research work in subjects of general interest to 
extension workers. 1 

There are several different types of membership in the association, 
making it possible for individuals as well as institutions to obtain 
assistance from the central office. While the association is governed 
chiefly by the directors of extension in State universities, other 
extension directors are eligible and any institution may arrange for 
clearing-house service. 

1 Statement issued by Dr. A. J. Klein, executive secretary, National University Extension Association, 
Incorporated, Munsey Building, Washington, D. C. 


"The American university emerges from the war with a new sense 
of confidence and of social obligation," says George Edgar Vincent. 
Undoubtedly the interpretation of that obligation includes definite 
assumption of the necessity of developing university extension. 
The following statements of the essential elements of a university 
extension policy are quoted in this bulletin because they throw light 
on the motive and direction of the movement. 



President Van Hise began his administration with the formal announcement of 
"service to the Commonwealth" as its motto, and he carried out that idea in ways 
never before tried on such a scale. Thus he has profoundly affected the practice of 
universities and has even modified the conception of a State university. I refer to 
the development of those lines of activity which for want of a better name are inade- 
quately grouped under the name of university extension. 

I find no evidence that President Van Hise entered office with any definite con- 
ception of university extension as a means of public service, or indeed that he entered 
on the rehabilitation of that branch of university work with any design of making it 
one of the prime factors in State university life. University extension was no unknown 
thing in the University of Wisconsin when he came to the presidency. It was estab- 
lished in 1892 and was organized in the ordinary form, with lectures and accompany- 
ing instruction in classes. Interest in it had declined in Wisconsin as it had every- 
where, and on his accession it had little life. It so continued during four years, but 
in 1907 he reorganized the department, bringing to the university Louis E. Reber, 
first as director of university extension, later advanced to the position of dean of the 
extension division. He secured from the legislature of 1907 an annual appropriation 
of $20,000 for the work. The next legislature granted $50,000, and the income of the 
division from appropriations and fees has risen rapidly, until it now exceeds $275,000 
annually. Thus university extension rose almost at once to a leading place in the 
university, surpassed in size only by the largest colleges, those of letters and sciences 
and of agriculture. This sum, devoted specifically to extension, is in addition to 
some $150,000 annually expended by the college of agriculture along similar lines. 
Altogether, nearly one-fifth of the operating expenses of the university other than 
those associated with the physical plant goes in that direction. 

Enlargement of university teaching. Here, then, was introduced into the life of 
the university and of the State a new factor and a new influence not new indeed 
in the sense that it was something unheard of or something untried, but new in the 
sense that a scheme which had been attempted with limited success as a secondary 
method of extending knowledge was elevated to a primary position and brought 
into the first rank of university influences. Two principles underlie university 
extension. One of these could have been operative at any time in the recent past; 
the other belongs to our own day in its might and force. The first looks at it as an 

1 Excerpts from address delivered by President E . A. Birge, of the University of Wisconsin, in memorial 
to his predecessor, President Van Hise. MSS., 1919. 



enlargement of university teaching of individual opportunity for study as a means 
of affording the chance of higher education to those persons who can not attend a 
university. Hence the historical name "university extension," connoting the 
enlargement of the area of university classes. The other point of view, though in 
some ways akin to this, is fundamentally different. 

Application of knowledge. This view starts not from the university as a center for 
teaching, but regards it as a center of learning, as the place where knowledge is 
accumulated and advanced. Into the university pour the streams of knowledge 
from all parts of the world in ever-increasing volume and rapidity of flow. Here, 
too, new, though smaller, currents arise, the contributions of the university to the 
stream of knowledge. The university is equipped by its libraries and its labora- 
tories, most of all by the men and women assembled in its faculties, to receive this 
increasing knowledge, to sift it and judge its worth, to modify it or to increase it, 
and to hand it on to the students in its classes. But the university as thus denned 
is not equipped on another side and for another duty which belongs rather to our 
own day than to the past. This mass of knowledge, accumulating with a rapidity 
whose acceleration is almost portentous, is not, like that which scholasticism gained 
in the Middle Ages, wholly or primarily a subject for the discussions of scholars. 
It is also the knowledge which the members of the community must apply to the 
conduct of practical affairs, if these are to be ordered wisely and successfully. This 
is not a matter of education proper, either higher or lower, not a matter of teaching 
principles which the student will later apply in practice. It involves the transmuta- 
tion of learning into such form that it can be directly used in the ordering of affairs. 
It means the extension of learning, the transmutation of science into practice, the 
application of knowledge to concrete problems of everyday affairs. 

To convey learning to the people. In this sense university extension is a far wider 
and more fundamental thing than in its older significance of extension by lectures 
and correspondence study. The latter is a sort of academic work of benevolence, the 
offering of education to those whom age or ill fortune deprives of the chance to study 
in the regular way. It does not differ in principle from the immemorial mission of 
endowments founded to bring such persons to university halls. But the new univer- 
sity extension involves new functions for the university and functions in large 
measure untried. Its aim is not so much education as the amelioration of life by 
the direct application of knowledge. It has become the duty of the university to 
reinterpret knowledge for the ends of practice and to convey learning so reinterpreted 
to the people in such a way as to make it immediately effective in life. 

This function universities have longest applied and best worked out in agricul- 
ture, though even here matters are far from settled. A main work of the agricul- 
tural experiment stations is to act as an intermediary between pure science and 
practical farming. Experience has shown that many and various methods are needed 
to get this transmuted science into practice. Farmers' institutes, demonstration 
farms, short courses for farmers, young and old, county agricultural representatives, 
organized societies all these as well as agricultural education in its proper sense, 
. are needed to put at work efficiently and promptly the knowledge acquired and 
shaped by university and station. 

University extension and problems of society. This is a special case of a major problem 
of modern life, of modern life rather than of modern education that of the methods 
of securing the utilization in practice of vast stores of knowledge ever enlarging in 
content and changing in application. The problem is by no means confined to agri- 
culture, though both State and social considerations give it a peculiar importance and 
difficulty in that field. It exists everywhere in the field of society; and Wisconsin 
through its university under the leadership of President Van Hise is perhaps the 
first State to give it a generous recognition and to provide large means for beginning 
its solution in practice. 


The problem thus offered by university extension presented itself to Dr. Van Hise 
in several aspects. There was present the older feeling of the necessity of carrying 
university education to all who can profit by it, whether these can come to the uni- 
versity or not. There was even greater need to the university of an organization 
by which it might express the results of learning directly to the public. Above all, 
there was in his mind the democratic ideal of the State and of the State university 
an ideal ever before him and always dominant. 

Utilization of knowledge. He saw a State dependent for its prosperity, for its success 
in competition with other States, on the full and prompt utilization of the knowledge 
which science is so rapidly accumulating. He saw a university founded and main- 
tained by the State to be the possessor and augmenter of this knowledge. But he 
saw also that a connection was lacking between the people of the State and the uni- 
versity. Knowledge accumulated at the center, but there was no way of realizing it 
in action at the periphery. University extension was the means devised to close this 
gap, to complete the State educational system by providing a definite agency which 
is to send out knowledge, transmitted in a workable form from the university to the 

The execution of such a program is no simple or easy task. Social life still depends 
in large measure on tradition and rule of thumb, although at innumerable single 
points it needs the guidance of science. It is not ready to intrust its interests as a 
whole to science; nor is science ready to accept that responsibility, if it were asked 
to do so. 

Thus, much of the work is partial, much is tentative, much is experimental. Many 
things will be tried and abandoned after trial. Many more which seem small and 
unimportant at first will prove ultimately to be of great value. Many matters will 
be undertaken from the central university which later will be turned over to local 
organizations. Still more important, the work will necessarily be in a sense frag- 
mentary and broken, and not a connected whole like the teaching of a college or a 
department, but consisting rather of detached tasks, each addressed to a specific 
need of society or community. Their connection will be that of need for guidance 
and the possibility of meeting this need Bather than any close intellectual or 
logical bond. 

Faith in democracy. It demands great power of initiative, great courage, and great 
faith in democracy to attempt such a policy on the large scale. Minor failures are sure 
to occur; experiments will be wrongly tried ; men will be appointed who prove unfitted 
for novel tasks; and all these things mean just criticism and often unfriendly criticism. 
But the dozen years that have passed since President Van Hise initiated the policy 
have justified it. University extension in this sense has become accepted as an 
inevitable responsibility by universities, especially by State universities. It has 
entered as a war measure into the activities of national life and will perpetuate itself 
there during peace. No one who can read the signs of the times can fail to see that 
Wisconsin, under the leadership of President Van Hise, broke the way into a new and 
great field of university work. The life and the work of universities, the country 
over, have been permanently changed and enlarged by his influence, and the change 
has only begun to manifest its effect. 

Uniting State and university. With this conception of the duty of the university 
to the Commonwealth, President Van Hise united an unshakable faith in the intelli- 
gent good will of the Commonwealth toward the university in these new enterprises. 
He was confident not only that the State would support the university in these new 
enterprises, but also that it would see how the assistance given to the public in concrete 
cases was made possible and effectual -by thp entire university life behind it. He 
believed, therefore, that in thus uniting State and university at new and numerous 
points of contact, he was strengthening the institution in its highest functions; he 
was confident that the people would in a new sense and to a higher degree than before 


appreciate the intellectual forces represented in the university and would sustain all 
the parts of its great and complex life. 1 

I have emphasized this salient point in the presidency of Dr. Van Hise because, 
more than any other one thing, it represents that which will be most conspicuous in 
his work for the university; that which will remain visible when the history of years 
of successful administration has lapsed into the indistinguishable memory of past 
things well done: But it would be wrong to leave the story with this presentation for 
it would convey the idea that President Van Hise was fundamentally an educational 
reformer, interested primarily in his reforms and neglecting in his own thought the 
older and larger matters which make up the mass of university life. Such a view 
would wrong the memory of the president, wrong him even as the university has been 
wronged by the impression that Wisconsin is essentially an extension institution. 
Extension constituted the differentia of his administration, not its characteristics, as 
seen by us who lived and worked with him. 

University's duty to increase knowledge. His conception of the university went back 
to the days when he studied under Prof. Irving and when he took part as a young man 
in the early development of the university spirit and organization during the adminis- 
tration of President Chamberlin. Central in that conception were the ideals of 
scholarship and research of the university's duty to increase knowledge and its equal 
duty to make knowledge live in the lives of its students. His was a working concep- 
tion of research. He had, as all men must have who advance science, the pinoneer 
spirit, the love of the new world, of the unbroken trail; he was ready to sacrifice ease, 
to endure hardship, to bear long-continued labor, if only the frontiers of knowledge 
might be advanced by him. Research meant specific problems to be solved at any 
cost of toil, not a "keeping in touch " with the advance of his science. * * * When, 
therefore, President Van Hise urged on his faculty the fundamental duty of research 
as part of their academic life, he spoke with full knowledge of his demands. * * * 

He had a long and arduous experience in teaching science to large classes, not 
merely as stimulating his students to become specialists but also as part of a general 
education, as influencing the life and thought of students who will never pursue the 
subject in a serious way after they leave his class. * * * 

Thus the catholicity of his university temper gave him points of contact with the 
life and influence of all types of teachers in his faculty. They were engaged in no 
line of work which he had not shared, none in which he had not succeeded, none 
whose value he had not weighed as a part of the life of the university whose earlier 
growth he had aided and whose later development he was now guiding. It was no 
small thing that he saw all of these matters primarily in relation to the university. 
He called on each one of us not merely to do his part in maintaining the university, 
but to put his full strength into helping its progress. He had found it a man's work 
to take his place in "that group of men to whom we of to-day owe the existence of the 
university. From those who joined its faculty in the more fortunate day of larger 
opportunity he had every right to ask devotion and work comparable to 
opportunity. * * * 

Public service. Through all the urgent duties of the presidency he devoted his hard 
won leisure to writing and to public service, instead of to well-earned rest. He took 
the active part in the urgent discussions of the day which his broad training as an 
economic geologist warranted. He worked out the principles underlying the conser- 
vation of natural resources and the control of industries based on them and expressed 
the results not only in numerous addresses but in books. Thus the knowledge and 

1 The State of Wisconsin passed by referendum and in special session in 1919 two remarkable educational 
measures which are designed to give special opportunity to soldiers and sailors and others who served in 
the war. They apply the principle of an "educational bonus" and provide generous means for realizing 
it. There are special provisions for extension students, including the giving of free correspondence study 
courses and the holding of short courses, special schools, part-time day and evening classes. 


training accumulated in years of reasearch and teaching were made increasingly 
effective for public service and were vigorously used for the public benefit. * * * 
Extension the outcome of public necessities. Dr. Van Hise was not only familiar with 
the traditions of the university ; he had been himself a powerful influence in creating 
them. He represented in his own person our academic ideals from elementary teach- 
ing to most advanced research. He saw the wide extent and variety of university 
effort in its relation to the institution. He saw the institution not only in its relation 
to learning, but also in that broader aspect in which it not only represents the State, 
but is itself the State organized for the higher intellectual life. And to all these 
qualities he further added a capacity for public affairs and a knowledge of them which 
lifted him out of the merely academic level and enabled him to see both university 
and State from a common point of view. Thus, while he embodied the academic 
traditions of the university, he was not confined by them or limited to them. He 
was completely in touch with his faculty, stimulating and guiding academic life and 
practice at all points. He was also able to conceive and execute policies like that of 
university extension, which were the outcome of a knowledge of public necessities 
rather than of academic development alone. He advanced the university along each 
of these lines while keeping both himself and the institution in full sympathy with 
the other. 



The fundamental duties of every university are to teach, to investigate, to dissemi- 
nate truth, and to afford technical guidance to the people. My own ambition for the 
University of Virginia is to speed the time when no cry of help in any social need shall 
come up from any community in the Commonwealth that will not be met by imme- 
diate response from the forces and agencies assembled here at the university. If this 
was a normal peace-time aspiration, it is even more a war-time ambition. If it was 
our duty to discharge these obligations in peace through ordinary channels, it is even 
more our duty now to bring to bear all of our resources upon the novel and complex 
problems that face our democracy. 

The University of Virginia, as soon as war was declared, hastened to concentrate its 
energies in helpful work for the Nation. It placed military training in its curriculum; 
it classified its resources of men and equipment; it organized and offered war courses 
of instruction; it organized a great base hospital unit, now ready for embarkation; its 
faculty, undergraduates, and alumni gave themselves to the Nation's need so gener- 
ously that 20 per cent of them are now to be found with the colors. This sort of help- 
fulness will continue to go on as the need arises; but the university realizes that there 
rests upon it, in addition to this, a clear educational duty, not only to teach those who 
come to its walls, but to instruct all citizens who need guidance as to the causes of war, 
the character of American ideals, the avenues for public usefulness, the true ways to 
win peace, the nature of the responsibility that rests upon all Americans in this solemn 
moment of our national history, and the character of the reconstructive work that 
awaits us all when a just peace shall be won. The university wishes to discharge those 
duties to the extent of its power, and, if possible, in cooperation with high schools, 
grammar schools, and other educational bodies in practical and definite ways. It 
wishes to draw nearer to the people by offering them practical but inspiring instructions 
in a sound idealism, in all useful administrative work, in the mobilization of latent 
resources, and in all the fields that tend to give to a patriotic American knowledge of 
his privileges and duties in this testing time in the experiences of the Republic. 

Our Republic can no longer rely on an unlimited quantity of untouched Wealth, 
but must depend upon skill and training for the proper development of its resources. 
The times call imperatively, therefore, for educated leadership, whose greatest need 

Quoted from University of Virginia Record, Extension Series, November, 1917. 


will be knowledge and the discipline of exact training. The ultimate mission of the 
State university in America will be to supply this training, not only to the fortunate 
few who can repair to its walls, but to all the people who constitute the life of the State. 
Universities must, therefore, in a peculiar sense, draw nearer to the people, young 
and old, in helpfulness and service. This is an old philosophy, indeed, but informed 
now by a new and vigorous spirit which will be satisfied with nothing less than a 
complete and pervasive program. University extension is the name given to this 
great connecting link between every part of a university and the actual conditions 
of life in the State which the university exists to aid and strengthen . The fundamental 
ideal of university extension is the ideal of service to democracy as a whole rather than 
to individual advancement. The University of Virginia, founded by the greatest 
individualist and democrat of the age, would be strangely false to its origin and genius 
if it did not seek to illustrate this idea. It has, of course, for years sought to render, 
such service in indirect fashion and with limited means. It is now undertaking to 
inaugurate the great system in a more direct fashion, with the hope that the encourage- 
ment it receives will enable it to overcome all obstacles and to realize the great demo- 
cratic purpose of bringing the university to every fireside and home in the Common- 
wealth. This sort of university extension necessitates large means, but when its 
advantages to the elevation of standards and life in the Commonwealth are seen, a 
sagacious and generous people will not fail, I believe, to provide for the maintenance 
of so vital an enterprise. 

President Lowell, of Harvard University, says: 

A college, to be of any great value, must grow out of the community in which it 
lives, and must be in absolute touch with that community, doing all the good it can, 
and doing what the community needs. Any institution not in close touch with the 
community around it is bound to wither and die. The institutions about us to-day 
which are doing the most good in the way of helping their respective communities are 
the great State universities of the Middle West. We must learn to do those things 
which others are doing. 

Dean Bailey, of Cornell College, says: 

All persons in the Commonwealth are properly students of a State institution, but 
very few of them have yet registered, nor is it necessary that any great proportion of 
them should leave home in order to receive some benefits of the institution. It is the 
obligation of such an institution to serve all the people, and it is equally the obligation 
of the people to make the institution such that it can exercise its proper functions; 
and all this can be brought about without sacrificing any worthy standards of education. 


The following is a series of elementary definitions of terms used to 
designate different kinds of university extension work. After each 
definition a partial list is given of the State university extension 
divisions which have developed the specific service in whole or in 

Extension teaching service. A phrase used to distinguish the more formal and stand- 
ard kinds of instruction from the informal methods of university extension, such as 
investigations, institutes, conferences, and various kinds of welfare work. 

This phrase, or a similar one, is Utilized by Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Pittsburgh, 
North Dakota, Utah, and Washington, to distinguish certain kinds of work from the 
kinds classified under ' ' Public welfare service. " 

Correspondence instruction. Teaching by mail. University instructors prepare 
written courses with detailed analysis, questions, and references, and require the 
student to do certain amounts of work, submit written reports, and answer specific 
questions for each lesson. Usually a year is given the student for completion of a 
standard course. Practically every important subject offered on the university 
campus is given by some extension division in the country. Man; elementary 
subjects are given. 

Used by the following universities: Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, 
Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, 
Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, 
Pittsburgh, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and 

Extension class instruction. Instructors meet students in classes arranged in differ- 
ent towns and cities of the State. Ordinary college subjects are taught and also special 
subjects like business psychology or commercial English, and vocational, cultural, and 
professional subjects, by regular instructors who come from the university. Fre- 
quently special instructors are secured outside the university faculty, men with prac- 
tical experience and affiliations. 

The classes closely resemble in subject matter and methods of teaching the classes 
regularly held in college and university Frequently the period set aside for lecture 
by the professor is supplemented by extended practical discussions to meet the prob- 
lems of the mature extension student. 

Used by the following universities: Arkansas, California, Colorado, Columbia, 
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Oregon, 
Pittsburgh, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, anci West Vir- 

Class and club instruction. Such work is a combination of class and correspondence 
study. Instructors supply a course of lessons and also meet the class or club occasion- 
ally to give them personal guidance and to get their point of view and group difficulties. 
Papers are submitted by mail for correction at the university. Examinations are some- 
times given to students desiring a special certificate showing completion of the work. 
This work does not count as university "credit;" that is, it does not offer opportunity 
to secure a university degree. 

Used by the following universities: California, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Missis- 
sippi, North < Carolina, and Texas. 



Advisory m ail ins t ruction. The instructor applies general principles of a correspond- 
ence course to the practical problems of an individual. For instance, a course on 
health in the home is made the basis of personal advice to a mother who wants system- 
atic instruction in the principles of rearing children, and the instructor makes sugges- 
tions in reference to definite problems the mother presents from her own experience. 

Used by the Universities of Kansas and New York. 

Club study. Extension officers recommend club programs, supply references, sug- 
gest books and lecturers, and furnish guides and other assistance in the preparation of 
club papers. The work is usually done for women's clubs, but is offered also to commu- 
nity center associations and civic clubs. 

Used by the following universities: Arkansas, California, Indiana, Kansas, Nevada, 
North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and Texas. 

Directed reading courses. A surprisingly large number of mature persons, even those 
who have had college training, welcome assistance in choosing selected reading mate- 
rial not only fiction, or general literature, but also scientific books, pamphlets, and 
periodicals. Several extension divisions issue selected book lists, outline studies with 
bibliographies, club study outlines, and other helps to systematic reading. 

Used by the Universities of Arkansas, Kansas, Oklahoma, Oregon, and Texas. 

The United States Bureau of Education conducts home reading courses and proposes 
to utilize the State extension divisions in making them more widely available. 

Lectures. The old method of haphazard speaking by university professors is gradu- 
ally being supplemented by a system of selective supply through the extension divi- 
sion, which uses outside resources as well as the university faculty to meet the needs 
of different groups of people. 

Lectures in series are being developed to offer system and detail in the consideration 
of the subjects or problems. Frequently such lecture series are practically of the same 
character as those of regular class instruction, except that the routine of enrollment, 
assignment, examination, and accrediting is dispensed with. 

Used by the following universities : Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Florida, 
Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi. 
Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, 
Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. 

Demonstrations. University extension has developed a remarkably varied adap- 
tation of laboratory methods in presenting the results of study and investigation. 
This is possible partly because of the increasing adequacy of the laboratory equipment 
of the local high schools. Extension courses in home economics frequently give con- 
siderable attention to practical demonstrations of the processes discussed in class. 
Engineering subjects are thus presented, as well as physics, chemistry, and other sci- 
ences. The same methods are often used in lecture series, short courses, institutes, 
and conferences, adding definite concrete instruction to extension work that otherwise 
may be merely suggestive, entertaining, or of a mildly intellectual character. 

Used by the following universities : Arkansas, California, Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, 
Indiana, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin. 

Special visual instruction. Exhibits consisting of actual -materials, such as collec- 
tions of minerals, or the various parts of machines and the different kinds of raw or 
manufactured materials involved in some industrial process, are sent to schools where 
the teachers use them in classroom instruction. The exhibits are designed to fit into 
the regular course of study pursued by the pupils. Lantern slides, motion-picture 
films, stereoscopic views, prints, and pictures of many different kinds are utilized also 
as supplements to classroom study. They are also used extensively as regular school 
material . 

rsed by the following universities: California, Indiana, Michigan, Pittsburgh, 
Oregon, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. 


Merchants 1 short courses. The short course for the farmer is a Well-known instruc- 
tional method developed by the agricultural colleges. Less well known but even 
more effective are the intensive lectures and discussions arranged for certain groups of 
merchants in the towns and cities. Such practical subjects as advertising, window 
display, bookkeeping system, etc., are treated by specialists, who, in lecture and con- 
ference, apply the principles to the peculiar difficulties of the men who attend the 

Teacher-training courses. The extension work done for public-school teachers varies 
from State to State and in many local communities. Sometimes the subject like the 
junior high school is offered in an extended series of lectures and discussion at inter- 
vals of a week or two throughout a year or more; other subjects are offered daily in 
the evening or afternoon. Most frequently, however, teacher-training courses are 
given in classes that meet once a week. A large proportion of courses for teachers 
given in residence are also offered in extension classes. 

Public service. Various phrases, such as public service, public welfare service, depart- 
ment of general information and welfare, are used to designate comprehensively certain 
groups of activities which are not definitely standardized or formal, like correspond- 
ence study and class instruction. Surveys, investigations, conferences, exhibits, in- 
stitutes, publications, and many other devices and activities of university extension 
can not be readily grouped together in a rigid classification, but they all have one 
element in common, that of service to the public, a service that is relatively free to 
any person in the groups directly aided. 

Institutes and short courses. Institutes are specially prepared programs on certain 
topics, devices to inform large groups of people concerning special problems. Short 
courses are similar to institutes but are usually intended for smaller groups. 

A community institute usually involves: 

(a) Conferences with commercial club members and city officials on the chief 

needs of the community. 

(b) Survey by specialists; preliminary meetings with local committees. 

(c) A program of several days' duration arranged to attract every age and occu- 

pational group possible. 

(d) The community problems presented by local men and women and by the 

university specialists through lectures, exhibits, demonstrations, etc. 

(e) The formulation of plans for meeting the problems and first steps to carry 

them out. 
(/) Follow-up work from the university. 

A trade institute is similar to ordinary conferences held by any association, except 
that much of the organization is done by the university. 

Used by the following universities: Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, 
Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Minnesota, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Utah, 
West Virginia, and Wisconsin. 

Conferences. Frequently universities arrange programs of discussion on topics of 
interest to special professional groups or of importance to the general public. Such 
conferences differ from community institutes in that they deal usually with but one 
general problem and usually they are technical and intensive. However, the con- 
ference is sometimes designed to arouse popular interest in some specific problem, 
such as tax reform, revision of the State constitution, child welfare, and housing. 

Used by the following universities: Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Iowa, 
Kansas, Michigan, New Mexico, North Carolina, West Virginia, and Wisconsin. 

General information, service. The extension staff utilizes the personal and library 
resources of the university to answer inquiries of all sorts, from specific requests for 
the facts concerning public utilities, the history of railroad legislation, or communi- 
cable disease, to general requests for material on the causes of the war, the problems of 
reconstruction, the theories of astronomy, or how to equip a home. 


Used by the following universities: Arizona, Arkansas, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Ken- 
tucky, Michigan, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Utah. 

Business service. Various kinds of assistance are rendered business men besides the 
merchants' short courses, which offer instruction in merchandizing, retail selling, etc. 
Information on particular business problems is furnished through bulletins, package 
libraries, and printed circulars. Some extension divisions give direct aid in the 
organization and development of commercial clubs or chambers of commerce. 

Used by the following universities: Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Oklahoma, Pitts- 
burgh, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. 

Municipal reference. Bureaus of municipal reference serve especially officials of 
town and city. They also cooperate with voluntary associations like civic clubs and 
chambers of commerce in their work of community development. The bureaus fur- 
nish information on special municipal problems. They hold conferences and publish 
bulletins on municipal affairs. 

Used by the following universities: California, Cincinnati, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Washington, and Wisconsin. 

Library service. Books, pamphlets, and other printed matter are lent to individuals 
and groups. Some divisions circulate traveling libraries and undertake other work 
usually done by State library commissions. 

Used by the universities of California, Michigan, Nevada, and Wyoming. 

Package library service. Small packages of up-to-date printed matter on questions 
or topics of current public interest are mailed to borrowers in the State. Debatable 
questions are presented by well-balanced selection of authoritative materials. 

Used by the following universities: Arkansas, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, 
Missouri, Montana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, 
Virginia, and Wisconsin. 

Discussion and debate service. Special debate bulletins are printed and widely dis- 
tributed. Contests between groups are organized, subjects of discussion suggested, 
references provided, briefs outlined, printed matter supplied. Most extension divi- 
sions assist or direct State high-school discussion leagues. Speakers are furnished to 
civic clubs, forums, parent- teacher associations, merchants' conferences, city councils, 
city clubs. 

Used by the following universities: Alabama, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, 
Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada, 
New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, 
Tennessee, Virginia, and Wisconsin. 

Visual instruction. The use of motion pictures, lantern slides, maps, exhibits of 
all kinds for conveying information, for technical instruction, for recreation, enter- 
tainment, and esthetic enjoyment. These materials are lent to clubs and institutions 
and circulated in the State. The following are common types of exhibits: Welfare 
exhibits on community topics, health, play, recreation, sanitation, gardening, land- 
scape architecture, child welfare, public-health nursing, road building; industrial 
exhibits, safety appliances, wood and forestry materials, minerals, textiles; art exhib- 
its, framed drawings, etchings, oil paintings, prints, copies of masterpieces. 

The motion-picture service has developed under considerable difficulties, chief of 
which was the lack of a central collecting and distributing center for the whole 
country. Few universities have the financial resources necessary to support an 
extensive service. This difficulty has been partially met through an arrangement 
whereby the United States Bureau of Education maintains a film-distribution service 
to continue the work started by the temporary visual instruction section of the 
Federal division of educational extension. In 1919 the division supplied 4,000,000 
feet of films to 38 distributing centers, including 29 State university extension 


Used by the fallowing universities: Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colo- 
rado, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, 
Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, 
Oklahoma, Oregon, Pittsburgh, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, 
West Virginia, and Wisconsin. 

Lyceum service. Lectures, concerts, and entertainments of various kinds are secured 
for local committees by the extension division, acting as a clearing house for "talent." 
Some divisions organize circuits of Chautauquas. 

Used by the following universities: Arkansas, Indiana, Kansas, Minnesota, Mis- 
souri, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wisconsin. 

Community center. Community centers, originally called social centers, are local 
autonomous organizations designed to increase the number and effectiveness of 
activities which bring the people of a district together. The general idea behind the 
community-center movement is that of securing more cooperation between neighbors 
in the solution of community problems. 

Extension divisions assist the movement by holding conferences, and community 
institutes, conducting investigations and social surveys, furnishing programs, speakers, 
exhibits, and other aids to local organizations, especially in developing the wider 
use of the public schools. The Wisconsin division was the first to organize systematic 
service in this field. 

Used by the following universities: Colorado, Indiana, Kansas, Minnesota, North 
Carolina, Oregon, Texas, and Wisconsin. 

Community drama and music. Extension divisions assist local organizations in the 
development of entertainments, dramatic productions, and group singing, because 
of their value in encouraging local talent and in improving the tone of community life. 
Lists of plays are printed and distributed, as well as practical bulletins giving 
directions for staging plays and for producing pageants and entertainment programs. 
Several divisions furnish the services of directors of community singing for special 
occasions. Others lend phonograph records, descriptions of folk games and dances, 
and organize literary and musical contests. 

Used by the following universities: Indiana, Iowa, North Carolina, North Dakota, 
Oregon, and Wisconsin. 

Americanization work. Cooperation with various agencies in their efforts to assist 
the foreign born and to promote general understanding of American ideals. Prac- 
tically all of the work of extension divisions may be regarded as important in this 
connection. The training of teachers of the foreign born and the holding of con- 
ferences for community welfare are two distinct types of Americanization work 
undertaken by extension divisions. 

Used by the following universities: California, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, 
Massachusetts, Minnesota, Pittsburgh, and Wisconsin. 

The following is a condensed description of the work of the Massa- 
chusetts department of university extension in Americanization : 

In July, 1918, the department gave a summer course in "Methods of teaching 
English to immigrants." The membership of this class consisted of 35 teachers. 

Since that time more than 2,000 teachers have been trained to give instruction to 
non-English speaking men and women. For the further development of this work 
additional funds were needed. The legislature appropriated $10,000. 

According to the new legislation, cities and towns in Massachusetts are to be 
remunerated by the State at the end of each school year for one-half of their expendi- 
tures for immigrant education, including salaries of teachers. 

During the winter classes were conducted in many cities and towns, and in the 
summer the course in the "Methods of teaching English to immigrants " was repeated, 
with the addition of a course in "Organization and supervision of Americanization." 


Fifty -four cities and towns in Massachusetts were represented, and there were enrolled 
in addition students from five other States. Last year there was a total enrollment 
of only 35; this summer the enrollment totaled 111 students. 

In addition there were conducted in various cities and towns 28 classes, consisting 
of foremen, leaders, and others holding responsible positions in different industries. 

Child welfare* Like health propaganda, the promotion of child welfare is a wide- 
spread undertaking which involves the utilization of practically all university exten- 
sion devices. The most distinctive activity is the children's health conference, 
which consists of lectures, conferences, exhibits, physical examination of children, 
and consultations with parents. The community is given assistance in providing for 
permanent improvements in local conditions affecting children. 

In several cases the divisions cooperate with State boards, child-welfare committees, 
parent-teacher associations, and other organizations. 

Used in the following universities: Colorado, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma, 
Texas, and Wisconsin. 

Employment service. Several divisions undertake the work of finding positions for 
university students and graduates, especially the placing of teachers. Other divisions 
assist incidentally the university .officers who have charge of appointments. 

Used in the universities of. Oregon, Pittsburgh, and Washington. 

Publications. The publications of extension divisions are of various kinds. Most 
often they consist of circulars and pamphlets. Several divisions publish a regular 
series of bulletins, including announcements, programs, and popular informational 
discussions or essays on welfare topics. Frequently the proceedings of conferences 
and reports of surveys and investigations are printed as bulletins. 

The extension division of Utah publishes the Utah Educational Review; North Caro- 
lina issues the University News Letter; North Dakota has issued a News Bulletin. The 
Extension Monitor, of Oregon, is a well-established periodical. The Washington 
division printed for a period the University Extension Journal as well as a special 
monthly bulletin entitled Better Business. 

Service to 'schools. All divisions cooperate directly with the teachers and officials 
of the public schools. Special courses of instruction are provided more often for 
teachers than for any other professional group. Many kinds of special aids to class 
room instruction are offered, including visual instruction materials, such as exhibits, 
maps, lantern slides, and motion pictures, advisory service" in problems of school 
administration, assistance in preparing programs for school meetings, demonstrations 
of methods of teaching, etc. 

Several divisions assist teachers in educational measurements. Others direct 
reading circle work, train teachers for vocational instruction in cooperation with 
the Federal Board of Vocational Education, and supervise or direct the training of 
Americanization workers, Boy Scout masters, Camp Fire guardians, and playground 
workers. In many States the divisions furnish instructors for county and city teachers' 

The following definitions dift'er somewhat from those usually given 
;o extension activities. The four activities or methods defined con- 
stitute the "Instruments of extension teaching," according to Wm. 
EL Lighty. In this classification Extension teaching is synonymous 
rtdth University extension. 1 
Correspondence-study teaching. The avenue of first consideration in extension 
teaching is that which addresses itself to those who can and choose to take up sys- 
tematic, consecutive studies in w r hich there is a continuous teacher and learner rela- 

i Report of Dean of Extension Division, Univ. of Wis., Madison, 1918. Wm. H. Lighfy, acting dean. 
153448 20 4 


tionship. All such work is classified as correspondence-study teaching, whether it ia 
done wholly by mail, and, therefore, at long distances; whether it is done in local 
class and conference groups; or whether it is conducted through any combination of 
degrees of use of either method. 

Lyceum teaching. The second avenue of university extension is that of lyceum 
teaching platform instruction and inspiration. 

Forum teaching. The third avenue is found in the forum method of teaching con- 
ducted through the department of debating and public discussion. 

Bureau teaching. The fourth avenue is through the bureau method of teaching, by 
which the widest and most far-reaching forms of social leadership and social service 
are possible. Its methods are the least set or fixed, and its possibilities cover the widest 
range of educational service, whether through suggestion, stimulation, propaganda, 
and direction for the advancement of individuals and communities, or in response 
to the requests for information and instruction on the part of those already conscious 
of their needs. 


Necessarily most discussions of university extension deal with 
methods, kinds of activities, modes of organization and work, instead 
of with subjects, topics, and the specific content of instruction and 
service. Some extension directors believe that this failure to empha- 
size content is a mistake that might be avoided; that university 
extension should concentrate its attention on specific interests rather 
than on methods of teaching and propaganda. 

Accordingly, it is contended that the properly organized extension 
division should have departments similar to those of the university 
teaching departments of sociology, economics, hygiene, fine arts, and 
the others. Instead of bureaus of correspondence study and class 
study in a department of extension teaching, the division should have 
many bureaus to correspond with the subject taught. Instead of 
bureaus of general information, public discussion, lectures, and visual 
instruction in a department of public welfare, the division should 
have bureaus of health, child welfare, municipal sanitation, food 
conservation, good roads, community center development, school 
improvement, markets, consumers' cooperation, and bureaus to cor- 
respond to other concerns of prime interest and importance. 

There is considerable attraction to this point of view. Extension 
directors recognize the power of concrete ideas like good health or 
good roads. The campaign method of doing educational work has 
its value, and some subjects, like health, readily lend themselves to 
propaganda methods. 

The following two sections on health and engineering are intended 
to give in some detail a survey of two fields of work which emphasize 
subject matter rather than method. Similar descriptions could be 
written of community center service, child welfare work, American- 
ization, community music extension, and economic betterment. 


One of the first fields of propaganda and instruction through 
various devices of university extension was that of health. Ever 
since the beginning of university extension, lectures and popular 
talks on health topics were given in many States by university 
instructors. The lectures deal with a large number of subjects, such 
as the following: Municipal and domestic sanitation, community 
recreation, water supply, garbage disposal, mental hygiene, medical 
inspection, physical handicaps of children, child hygiene, care of the 
teeth, prenatal care, first aid. 



"Lantern-slide sets, illustrating much the same topics as are treated 
in the lectures, are lent to individuals and organizations. Some of 
the more common topics thus illustrated are: Fresh-air schools, care 
of babies, the house fly, school hygiene. 

In addition to lectures and lantern slides on health subjects, 
extension divisions have developed the exhibit to instruct the public. 
They have also used motion-picture films, stereoscopic views, micro- 
scopic slides, and pictures of every kind, as well as the clinic, the con- 
ference, the institute, and other informative methods to acquaint the 
people with the facts and principles of hygiene, sanitation, and other 
health problems. 

Accordingly, health work of the university extension is not a 
distinct field, for it merges into various fields of extension practice. 
It is not practicable to mark off definitely the scope of health exten- 
sion. It is connected with many general community problems like 
those of milk supply, water supply, pure food, and with even more 
general problems like those of play and recreation, child welfare, and 
home economics. One principle, however, runs through all of the 
work the principle that educational propaganda should aim at the 
preventative rather than the curative handling of disease. Not 
much attention has been given by the extension divisions to instruc- 
tion in medicine and surgery and clinical practice, though some 
attempt has been made to give instruction in practical nursing and 
the application of physical culture to remedial defects. 


The following institutions give general courses of instruction in 
hygiene and related subjects: University of California, University 
of Chicago, Indiana University, University of Kansas, Connecticut 
Valley Colleges, Boston College, University of Missouri, University 
of Nebraska, University of North Carolina, Columbia University, 
Peabody College for Teachers, University of Utah, and the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin. In most of these institutions the work is admin- 
istered by the extension divisions. 

New York University offers a correspondence course in public 
health. The catalogue describes the course as follows: 

This course -requires one week's residence in New York, the balance of the work 
being taken by correspondence. A new course begins each year on October 1, but 
health officers may commence at any time and finish at any time. The minimum 
number of hours of home study is 300, and the subjects are those selected by the 
Public Health Council. The reading matter consists of about 3,000 printed pages. 
Those taking the course must designate at least one month in advance what days 
are to be spent in the city, so that suitable arrangements may be made for inspec- 
tions and laboratory work. Those who are able to do so are invited to attend as 
much of the summer-residence course as possible without extra charge. 


The subject matter to be covered may be conveniently grouped as follows: Com- 
municable diseases, bacteriology, legal questions of sanitation and treatment of nui- 
sances, infant and child hygiene, schools, milk r foods, water, sewerage and sewage 
disposal, housing and industrial hygiene, vital statistics, quarantine, tuberculosis. 

The following is a partial list of courses given by different insti- 
tutions. The courses are offered usually through class extension. 
Sometimes the classes are given instruction through a series of lec- 
tures by several different specialists rather than by a single instruc- 

Boston University. Personal and public hygiene. 

University of California. First aid, domestic hygiene, Red Cross courses, courses in 

dietetics, sanitation, eugenics, motherhood, and public health. 
University of Chicago. Public hygiene. 
Columbia University. Nursing, psychology for nurses and social workers , child hygiene, 

public health, school hygiene. 

Connecticut Valley Colleges. Physiology and hygiene. 
Indiana University. Hygiene with special reference to the school child, dietetics, 

public health. 
University of Kansas. Prenatal hygiene, infant hygiene, home nursing, hygiene and 


University of Missouri. Preventive medicine. 

University of Nebraska. First aid, home nursing, surgical dressing, dietetics. 
University of North Carolina. School hygiene. 
Peabody College for Teachers. Health teaching, health inspection in schools, mental 

hygiene, health problems. 

University of Utah. Public health, preventive medicine, health work in schools. 
University of Wisconsin. Home nursing, the prospective mother, the child in health, 

the child in disease, infants' clothes, study of the human body, health officers' 



The extension divisions have developed several types of health 
instruction in addition to formal courses given in class and by cor- 
respondence. These types include vocational courses, expert service 
in various lines, and special devices for propaganda. The following 
institutions have such types of service : University of Colorado. 
Columbia University, Indiana University, University of Iowa, 
University of Michigan, University of Minnesota, Akron University, 
and the Universities of Oklahoma, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Wash- 
ington, and Wisconsin. 

University of Colorado. The extension division provides single lectures and lecture 
courses on health subjects. 

Lantern slides on public health are loaned to individuals and organizations in the 

The division offers a four years' course for physicians and -health officials. The 
work is conducted by correspondence throughout most of the year, supplemented by 
six weeks of residence work, including laboratory instruction during the summer. 
Students receive a certificate of public health on completion of the course. 

At the sociology conference held at the university part of the sessions are devoted 
to public health. 


Courses in clinical methods are offered to practicing physicians, nurses, and labora- 
tory assistants to physicians. 

The bureau of community welfare gives health information and instruction through 
community institutes and exhibits. Child welfare institutes are conducted in differ- 
ent parts of the State. 

Columbia University. The university gives courses in optometry and oral hygiene. 
The extension division has charge of the premedical work of students in the Long 
Island College Hospital. 

Indiana University. The extension division does propaganda work in health through 
all of its activities: Lectures, exhibits, demonstrations, conferences, and community 
institutes. It lends a number of lantern-slide sets and motion pictures on health 

The supervisor of play and recreation works directly with the school officials of the 
State. The proceedings of conferences on play and recreation are published in 

The division cooperates with the State board of health, the board of State charities, 
and the State child welfare committee and with other organizations in health 

The division was the first to cooperate with the Federal Children's Bureau in the 
weighing and measuring of children of preschool age. The work usually goes by the 
najne of Children's Health Conferences. It was originally done in connection with 
community institutes held in the smaller cities of the State. Through the State child 
welfare committee this work was expanded to include most of the features of the 
children's year program of the Federal bureau. 

Surveys of health conditions in small towns are made by university specialists. 
Some practical investigations of specific health and welfare undertakings in different 
communities have been made. The division has published a bulletin describing 
methods of feeding school children. 

University of Iowa. The child welfare research station at the university was estab- 
lished to study methods of child conservation. It cooperates with the extension 
division in disseminating the results of its investigations. The division holds child 
welfare and general social welfa,re conferences and institutes, at which considerable 
attention is given to health . 

The social surveys conducted by the division include investigations of local health 

University of Michigan. The extension division offers lectures on a large number of 
subjects. The public health service includes, besides lectures, dental clinics, 
laboratory and hospital service, and service of the Pasteur Institute. 

University of Minnesota. Short courses are conducted for dentists. Health lectures 
on 23 different subjects are offered to the public. 

University of Oklahoma. The extension division provides lectures on health. It 
lends lantern slides and other visual materials. 

In connection with community institutes and conferences, the division gives 
instruction in hygiene, sanitation, and child welfare. 

University of Texas. The extension division offers lectures by members of the 
faculty. The division of school interests cooperates with the State public health 
association in conducting community programs which give considerable attention to 
health matters. 

University of Utah. The extension division conducts State- wide campaigns for the 
promotion of physical welfare. Short health institutes are held in various parts of the 
State. The division holds conferences and institutes for child welfare. Most of the 
work is under the direction of a department of public health and preventive medicine. 


The department reports that health institutes were conducted in the spring of 1919 
in over 60 different places in the State. The number of lectures given varied from 1 
to 21 at the different institutes and a total of over 15,000 people were reached. The 
department has issued a valuable report on the medical inspection of 346 school chil- 
dren in the Riverside school district of Salt Lake City. A number of bulletins have 
been issued on health topics. The following is a statement of the policy and methods 
of the health service. 1 


To push the work of health education in every legitimate way. 
To make health education as complete and as far-reaching as possible. 
To be patient with the laity and not expect immediate results, but keep at it. 
To assume an attitude toward the medical profession that will merit their respect, 
confidence, and cooperation. 
To render a real service to the people of the State. 


To train, not to treat. 

To point the way leading to perfect health. 

To extend a helping hand to those in need of advice or health education. 
To prevent the preventable both in disease and physical defects. 
To create in the minds of all classes a desire for physical fitness. 
To make each generation stronger and better than the preceding one. 


Should be as nearly accurate as possible from literary, educational, and scientific 

Should meet the demands of Utah. They should be adapted to the laity in rural 
districts rather than the slums of large cities. 

Should be comprehensive in presentation, simple in language, and useful in subject 
mattei . 

Should aim at building up the reputation of the university for usefulness, not the 
building up of a practice for the author. 

Should be ethical and should be conspicuous for their lack of advertisement either 
of preparation, methods, or men. 

Should be free from criticisms of the medical profession, the nurses, or of anybody. 
Should breathe a spirit of service and helpfulness, not condemnation. 

University of Virginia. The university offers lectures on health subjects. It also 
sends a special representative to different communities in the State who assists in 
conducting school hygiene campaigns. He inspects school conditions and advises 
with officials and patrons. 

University of Washington. The extension division conducts graduate medical and 
dental courses and clinics with the assistance of local specialists. 

The division has cooperated with the War Camp Community Service in instruction 
in social hygiene, also with nurses associations, in teaching the principles of public 
health nursing. 

University of Wisconsin. Most of the health work of the extension division is done 
through the bureau of health instruction, which conducts a press service, furnishes 
exhibits, and supplies lectures on health. The division cooperates with the State 
board of health and the Anti-Tuberculosis Association as well as with other organiza- 

i Quoted from mimeograph leaflet of the University of Utah, 1919. 


The department of general information and welfare conducts community institutes, 
children's health conferences, and local surveys. During the war the department 
organized Red Cross home service institutes and chapter courses. 

The division publishes attractive bulletins on health subjects. It circulates ex- 
tensively lantern slide sets, motion pictures, and other visual instruction materials 
for health propaganda in the State. 


Many extension divisions publish special pamphlets or bulletins 
dealing with public health, sanitation, and related problems. The 
following is a short list of a number of bulletins published by different 
extension divisions: 

Colorado University. Protection against typhoid. Municipal water supplies of Col- 
orado. Insanity, its nature and causes. 

University of Iowa. Child welfare surveys. Hygienic conditions in Iowa schools. 
Iowa handbook on child welfare. 

Indiana University. How to conduct children's health conferences. Feeding of 
children at school. 

University of Kansas. Constructive juvenile effort in Kansas. 

University of Missouri. The feeding of children. Feeding the baby. The house fly. 

University of Oklahoma. A healthier world. The conservation of life. 

University of Texas. Food for infants and growing children. Pure milk and how to 
get it. Cleanliness and health. 

University of Utah. Infant mortality. 

University of Wisconsin. Guarding the public health. Nursing as a vocation. Wis- 
consin baby week. Some aspects of feeblemindedness in Wisconsin. Chart on 
communicable diseases. 



Nearly all the extension work done in engineering is offered by the general exten- 
sion divisions of the various institutions. Only in a few cases are the courses in engi- 
neering directly under the management of the engineering departments, and this ia 
usually true of institutions which do not have a fully developed and unified extension 
system. Where such a system is maintained, and especially in the systems of the 
State universities, the work in engineering receives the same benefit as other work 
in the way of lectures, institutes, bulletins, visual instruction, expert advice, etc. 

The great bulk of the instruction in engineering, as in other subjects, is given in 
detached courses. A list' of institutions giving such instruction follows. Those 
marked with a star give a more extensive list of such courses than the others. 

University of Arizona, Tucson. 
University of Arkansas, Fayetteville. 
^University of California, Berkeley. 
University of Colorado, Boulder. 
Georgia School of Technology, Atlanta. 
University of Idaho, Moscow. 
Bradley Polytechnic Institute, Peoria. 
*University of Iowa, Iowa City. 

*Iowa State College of Agriculture and 
Mechanic Arts, Ames. 

*University of Kansas, Lawrence. 

*Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore. 

^Massachusetts Board of Education, Ex- 
tension Department, Boston. 

Lowell Institute, Boston. 

*Franklin Union, Boston. 

i This chapter is a copy of a mimeograph bulletin prepared by Dr. J. J. Schlicher for the Division of 
Educational Extension, U. S. Bureau of Education, May, 1919. 



*Northeastern College Y. M. C. A., 


^University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. 
University of Missouri, Columbia. 
*Washington University, St. Louis. 
University of Nebraska, Lincoln. 
Rutgers College, New Brunswick. 
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. 
^Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn. 
^Columbia University, New York. 
Union College, Schenectady. 
Syracuse University, Syracuse. 
University of North Carolina, Chapel 


University of North Dakota, Grand Forks. 
^University of Akron, Akron, Ohio. 

^University of Cincinnati. 

University of Oklahoma, Norman. 

Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pitts- 

Lehigh University, Bethlehem. 

Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. 

*Pennsylvania State College, State Col- 
lege, Pa. 

University of Pittsburgh. 

Rhode Island State College, Kingston. 

Brown University , Providence. 

*University ot Texas Austin. 

*University of Utah, Salt Lake City. 

University of Washington, Seattle. 

*University of Wisconsin, Madison. 

University of Wyoming, Laramie. 

A great number of different courses are offered. Among them the following are 
offered by three or more institutions. Courses which are not strictly technical, like 
those in various branches of mathematics, chemistry, and physics, have been omitted, 
even when they were especially adapted to the needs of engineering students. 


Architectural drawing and design. 

Applied mathematics and mechanics. 

Bridge design and construction. 

Descriptive geometry. 

Engineering mechanics. 


Electrical machinery. 

Gas engines. 

Heating and ventilation. 

Highway engineering and road building. 

Lumber and its uses. 

Mechanical drawing. 

Machine drawing. 

Machine design. 

Materials of construction. 

Power plant testing. 


Reinforced concrete construction and 



Railroad curves and earthwork. 
Shop practice. 
Strength of materials. 
Steam engines and engineering. 
Shop mathematics. 
Sheet metal work and drafting. 
Shop drawing and designing. 
Structural design and drafting. 
Wireless telegraphy. 

Courses given by two institutions. Automobile electricity, building construction, 
builder's and carpenter's estimating, engineering materials, engineering mathematics, 
electrical transmission, electrical power distribution and illumination, electric trac- 
tion and transmission, electric meters, electric lamps and illumination, foundation 
and masonry construction, gas producers, irrigation, metallurgy, mining and milling, 
power plant economics, railroad engineering, sanitary engineering, structural steel 
drafting and design, structural mechanics, steel building construction, sewage dis- 
posal, turbines, testing of materials, works management. 

Courses given by one institution. Automobile mechanics, automobile engineering, 
contracts and specifications, carpenter's and builder's drawing, coal mining, concrete 
tests, cable telegraphy, construction of electrical apparatus, central electrical stations, 
compressed air, cupola practice, drainage, electrical shop work, electrical practice, 
elements of structures, engine testing, electrical drafting, estimating for architects 
and builders, electric railways, distribution systems, electric measurements, electric 
engineering mathematics, electrical contracting, electrotechnology, electrical design, 


engine running, electrical measuring instruments, electrical equipment of power 
plants, furniture making, foundry metallurgy, field astronomy, firing, fuels, gas 
practice, gas engine theory and design, gas engine ignition, gas power, graphics, 
graphic statics, household electricity, hydraulic engineering, heating and lighting for 
janitors, instrumental drawing, loft practice, locomotive engineering, locomotive 
maintenance, locomotive operation, logging railroads, map drawing, mechanical 
drafting, marine engineering, mechanics of materials, power plant design, power plant 
calculations, power plant operation, practical physics, pattern making, pavements, 
practical mechanics, plotting and computing, railroad drawing, seamanship and 
ordnance, shop mechanics, stationary engines, shop calculations, shop sketching, test 
methods, wireless telephony, works engineering, water power engineering, water 

In addition to these courses, extension work in engineering exhibits several well- 
defined characteristics which deserve to be mentioned. Most of these are due to the 
peculiarly close connection between instructional and occupational work in this line. 

Part-time courses. Various ways are adopted of combining the two. A variation 
usually an abbreviation, of the regular four-year course is sometimes given, usually in 
the evening, to those who are employed during the rest of the day. Lowell Institute 
(Boston), under the auspices of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, conducts 
a free evening school for industrial foremen, comprising an electrical, a mechanical, 
and a building course. Northeastern College (Boston Y. M. C. A.) offers two four-year 
courses a part-time day course and an evening course in mechanical, civil, struc- 
tural, electrical, and chemical engineering. The University of Minnesota extension 
division gives groups of courses in architecture and in civil, mechanical, and electrical 
engineering. The work is given in the evening and extends over two to three years. 
The University of Wisconsin extension division suggests various groupings of its 
engineering courses, the groups consisting of from 4 to 10 courses each. The combina- 
tions are determined by the special requirements of some occupation. Thus there is 
a machine-design group, a gas-engine group, a refrigeration group, etc. 

Cooperation. An extensive form of cooperation, not usually classed as extension 
work, is carried on in engineering by the municipal universities of Cincinnati and 
Akron, and the Georgia School of Technology. This is the well-known plan of dividing 
the students into two sections, which alternate; two weeks at work and two weeks in 
the class. The requirements for entrance and graduation are virtually the same as 
for students taking the regular four-year course. Naturally, more time is required to 
complete the course. In the University of Cincinnati five years are fixed as the 
length of the course on the cooperative plan, the work continuing through 11 months 
of the year. A similar arrangement exists at the Georgia School of Technology. 

The two institutions in Ohio, being supported by the cities in which they are located, 
also perform an extensive service in giving expert advice and in cooperating along this 
line with the industries of the city and with the city government. A similar form of 
cooperation exists in the University of Pittsburgh and New York University. The 
extension evening classes of the Georgia School of Technology are supported by 
appropriations granted by the city council of Atlanta. 

Mining courses. Several institutions which have not hitherto gone extensively, if 
at all, into the field of extension work, maintain a special form of this work in connec- 
tion with the mines of the State. This is true of the Universities of Arizona, Ken- 
tucky, Nevada, and West Virginia, and of Pennsylvania State College. 

In Arizona this work is conducted by the State Bureau of Mines, which is under 
the direction of the board of regents of the university. In addition to its more tech- 
nical work, the bureau makes a study, for example, of recreation, organizations, and 
living conditions at the mines, and maintains a free film service and an information 
service. Some members of its staff are constantly in the field. 


In Kentucky, classes are formed at the mines by the department of mines and 
metallurgy of the university. Besides lectures to disseminate information on the 
mineral resources of the State, courses of study are mapped out for the classes, exam- 
inations are given, and a certificate is awarded for the satisfactory completion of the 

The Tonapah (Nevada) School of Mines gives secondary instruction in mining and 
milling subjects for those who wish to advance themselves without giving up their 
regular vocations. Classes are taught morning and evening to accommodate those 
changing shifts. 

The engineering extension department of Pennsylvania State College cooperates 
with shop officers, the Y. M. C. A., the railroads, chambers of commerce, trade-unions, 
etc., in organizing classes and supplying books and instructors in engineering for men 
engaged in work, especially those who have not had a high-school education. Each 
course consists of 20 weekly assignments. The chief aim is to present the fundamentals 
of engineering in each case. A number of such courses are offered in mechanical, 
electrical, civil, and industrial engineering. 

In West Virginia, instruction in mining centers is carried on jointly by a university 
instructor and a local instructor, usually a superintendent or foreman at the mine. 
The instructor from the university visits each center once or twice a month, giving 
supplementary lectures and demonstrations, and showing slides and films. Safety, 
sanitation, domestic science, etc., are also emphasized. 

Institutes. Professional institutes and short courses and expert information are 
often given, even by institutions which have no extension organization. Thus the 
Georgia School of Technology gives a three days' course in highway engineering for 
practicing engineers, and sends special information on request. The department of 
ceramic engineering in the University of Illinois offers a two weeks' industrial course 
in the principles underlying the manufacture of clay products, in cooperation with 
the clay and allied industries. It consists of lectures, laboratory work, practice in 
firing kilns, and discussion. The University of Michigan offers the advantages of its 
municipal, sanitary, and highway laboratories to the people and municipalities for 
making tests of materials, water, etc. A week's course in highway engineering is also 
given, consisting of lectures by experts. The University of Nevada gives a four weeks' 
prospector's course in prospecting, assaying, hygiene, etc., and laboratory work. The 
University of West Virginia conducts a four-day conference on good roads at the 
university, followed by a three-day school for general instruction in various parts of 
the State. 

Work along all these lines is, of course, done by other institutions also, which main- 
tain a complete extension system, including class and lecture work, a general informa- 
tion service, institutes, and conferences, visual instruction, etc. This includes the 
State universities listed and the Iowa State College of Engineering and Mechanic Arts, 
which has also established an extension system on the same lines as the State 


The activities of general university extension are exceedingly 
varied, and, with the exception of correspondence study and class 
study, not very definitely standardized. Accordingly, it is very 
difficult to give exact figures on the extent of service and the num- 
ber of people served through the various activities. Even in the 
case of extension centers and classes held in different cities of the 
State, enrollment figures are hard to classify. In some institutions 
students in extension classes are listed informally, and do not appear 
in the statistical tables of the university. This is especiaUy true of 
lecture courses in subjects not given for credit. Fairly exact figures 
can be obtained for correspondence-study students, though even 
here the same difficulty appears as in the case of class extension. 
Frequently students take correspondence-study courses without any 
intention of securing credit, and their names may not be listed 
in the enrollment figures. In addition, correspondence students 
may register any time in the year, and frequently they obtain ex- 
tension of time, so that at any one date it can not be stated with 
exactness how many bona fide students are taking work. 

Perhaps the best way to indicate the number of correspondence 
students in a single institution is to give a summary statement of 
all those who have enrolled during a certain period. For example, 
the correspondence-study department of Chicago reported May 1, 
1919, that it has reached nearly 21,000 persons during the past 27 
years. It is offering 450 credit courses in 40 different subjects. 
' ' It has made higher education possible to tens of thousands through 
pioneer work in university extension." 

The Massachusetts department of university extension reports 
that in the courses by correspondence and the courses taken in 
classes the potential active enrollment onJMarch 1, 1919, was 13,827. 
The enrollment from the establishment of the department, in Janu- 
ary, 1916, to March 1, 1918, totaled 22,115. 

The table following is a compilation of some of the reports fur- 
nished, September, 1919, in response to a questionnaire concerning 
the estimated number of persons served by extension divisions. 
Other reports contained figures which did not lend themselves to 
classification. In most cases the figures given in the table are 
necessarily approximate. They do not give a complete estimate of 
all the services, because data are seldom available for all items cov- 
ered by the column heads. They include only the work of the 
organized extension services and not that of the university as a 



Column 2 includes all credit and noncredit extension class instruc- 
tion and correspondence study of all kinds. 

Column 3 includes lectures, single and in series, concerts, chautau- 
quas, etc. 

Column 4 includes all slides, films, exhibits, expositions. 

Column 5 includes all services to clubs, package-library service, 
debates, etc. 

Column 6 includes institutes, conferences, short courses, consulta- 

Column 7 gives number of requests for information answered 
(other than by package libraries), and includes municipal reference,, 
special bibliographies, etc. 

Estimated number of persons served by 17 institutions, in the activities named, 1918-19. 


Extension division or service. 

and cor- 



and club 

and con- 


of copies 
of bulle- 
tins dis- 


University of Arkansas 








College of the City of New York. 

2 3. 660 



C 1 ) 




University of Denver 



I 1 ) 


19, 969 




Indiana University 

University of Iowa 

3 150 



* 1,000 



50 000 

Massachusetts commission 








Massachusetts department of 

university extension 

15. 450 







University of Michigan 








University of Missouri 








University of Montana 



6 12,000 





University of Oklahoma 
University of Oregon 








Pennsylvania State College 








University of Pittsburgh 
University of South Dakota . . . 










University of Texas 




488, 445 



290 000 

University of Virginia 









1 36, 285 

8 529, 300 


9 819, 709 

> 147,51ft 


1 Activity not undertaken, or no report. 

2 Correspondence study not included. 

3 Classes not included. 

4 236 schools served . 
Figures for 1917-18. 

e Includes only class instruction and not other extramural work. 
7 Includes 16 institutions. 
Includes 12 institutions. 
9 Includes 13 institutions. 
'<> Includes 8 institution's. 

The following tabulated statements of the work of several exten- 
sion divisions indicate approximately the number of persons affected 
by the different services. 


Number of semester registrations in evening extension classes 5, 118 

Number of registrations in short courses 505 

New registrations in correspondence courses . . 386 

Towns having lyceum courses 354 

Entertainments given on these courses 1, 684 


Single date addresses of various kinds 92 

Towns using lantern slides 94 

Sets of lantern slides used by these towns 622 

Towns using drama service 360 

Plays sent out to these towns 3, 105 

Towns served by the Municipal Reference Bureau 125 

Inquiries answered by the Bureau 500 


University news letter carrying results of economic and social surveys, 

weekly issues 12, 000 

Debaters in the High School Debating Union, 150 schools, 600 debaters, 

' audience 75, 000 

War information leaflets, stimulating patriotism 60, 000 

After- the- war information leaflets, concerning reconstruction total issue . . 10, 000 

Good roads institute for commissioner, engineers, etc attendance . . 125 

Federated Women's Club members enrolled in study courses 825 

Books and pamphlets lent in package library service 3, 219 

Lectures delivered on 185 occasions 50, 000 

Community centers organized 5 

North Carolina yearbook containing State studies total issue . . 2, 500 

Municipal reference service, film service, community drama service, 

persons affected 10, 000 


Correspondence study 861 

Extension classes: 

Extension classes 39 

Community classes held (27), enrollment 213 

Study clubs organized (8), enrollment 213 

Total, number of classes 465 


Extension lectures 1 , 446 

Extension concerts 526 

Total attendance 197, 200 

Visual instruction : 

Visual instruction lectures and slides circulated 34, 300 

Conferences 300 

Discussion and club service: 

Traveling libraries circulated 103 

Debating class 203 

Extemporary speaking, number of schools 322 

Package libraries, number distributed 1 , 028 

Current topics study, students enrolled 7, 408 


Extra mural instruction department: 

Centers for credit courses 11 

Centers for lecture courses 12 

Courses given for credit 19 

Students taking credit courses 345 

Noncredit attendance at courses 1, 732 

Total 2,077 



Public service department: 

Lecture bureau 

Lectures 1, 342 

Total audiences 290, 095 

Package library bureau 

Briefs and bibliographies prepared 104 

Loan libraries 103 

Visual bureau 

Centers using films 107 

Exhibits 779 

Attendance 503, 269 

Centers using slides 79 

Exhibitions 632 

Attendance 184, 241 

Appointment bureau 
Teacher's branch 

Positions secured 213 

Applicants placed 198 

Amount of salaries $159, 119 

Undergraduate branch, students placed 1, 208 

Relations bureau 

Interscholastic literary contest omitted. 
Conference with secondary school principals held. 
Ninth annual conference of college, normal and secondary schools 


The following is taken from the official report published in the catalogue of the 
University of Wyoming: 


In graduate standing 2 

Seniors 26 

Juniors 26 

Sophomores 54 

Freshmen 77 

Special 44 

Nurses training school 3 

University high school 68 

Music (not taking other subjects) 42 

Winter course 3 

Radio-buzzer class 27 

Summer school of 1917 261 


Less names counted more than 
once . . 30 



Correspondence study department.. 239 
Extension study (Cheyenne), phys- 
ical training for women 42 

Training for industrial teachers. .... 11 



Attendance at extension lectures, teachers' institutes, farmers' institutes, short 
courses, etc., is not counted in registration statistics. Careful estimates indicate 
that direct educational service of all kinds has been given in 1917-18 to about 26,000 




The following tables are taken from the third annual report of the department: 
Summary of total enrollment of students throughout the Commonwealth according 
to type of instruction correspondence, class, and group. The period covered, 
January 19, 1916, when first student was enrolled, to November 30, 1917: 




Total correspondence enrollment. 

Total class enrollment 

Total group enrollment 

Total enrollment 












Number of students who have completed courses since establishment of the depart- 




Completed with certificates: 
In correspondence courses. 

In classes 

In groups 










Completed without certificates: 
In correspondence courses. 

In classes 

In groups 





Subtotal 114 119 233 

Grand total 1,336 



Botany 21 German 34 

Economics 49 History 103 

Education 81 International law 18 

English 580 Music 77 

Fine arts. . /. , 30 Spanish 73 

French 114 Zoology 17 

Geography 108 

Geology.. 40! Total 1,345 

Since the establishment of the commission in 1910 the number of courses given 
each year and the registrations have been as follows: 

Regis- Regis- 

Courses, tration. Courses, tration. 

In 1910-11 16 863 In 1915-16 24 1,544 

Inl911-12 17 1,150 In 1916-17 21 1,435 

In 1912-13 21 1,060 In 1917-18 29 1,345 

Inl913-14 19 1,127 In 1918-19 . .. 1,184 

In 1914-15 24 1,309 



In 1911-12 3, 360 In 1915-16 17, 158 

In 1912-13 6,577 In 1916-17 ' 48,060 

In 1913-14 11,288 In 1917-18 27,412 

In 1914-15 13,547 


In extension lectures 88 courses have been given. Extension courses are open to 
everybody in Portland. Nineteen courses were given in seven different places in 


Registrations, Bureau of correspondence study, 1912-1919 1, 519 

Hours of credit earned by correspondence study, 1917-18 310 

Hours of credit earned by correspondence study, 1918-19 354 

Courses completed by students in English, French, journalism, political 

science, and 15 other departments or subjects 811 

Class instruction, 1918-19: 

Students in Indianapolis center, first semester 425 

Students in Indianapolis center, second semester 370 

Total 795 

Students in Fort Wayne center, first semester, 1917-18 179 

Students in Fort Wayne center, second semester 246 

Total.. 425 

Total. 1918-19, second semester 311 

Students in classes at New Castle and 11 other cities, 1918-19 273 

Public welfare service, 1918-19: 

Children tested 100, 000 

Attendance at Red Cross institutes and chapter courses 250 

Schools enrolled in discussion league 175 

Approximate attendance at league contests 18, 00 

Approximate attendance at lectures arranged by speakers' bureau 25, 000 

Lecture series and institutes, attendance 1, 100 

Welfare and art exhibits circulated (29), number of exhibitions 158 

Package libraries and club study outlines supplied , 1, 969 

Number of lantern slides lent 19, 057 

Approximate attendance <. 27, 500 

Informational bulletins published (10), copies distributed 30, 000 


Correspondence enrollments, 1916-1918 12, 923 

Package libraries lent, 1917-18 6,663 

Requests for information answered by Municipal Reference Bureau, 1916- 

1918 1,494 

Cities served by Municipal Reference Bureau .-... 128 

Registration in classes for postgraduate medical instruction, 1918 247 

Lectures by faculty members, 1917-18 551 

July 1, 1918, to May 1, 1919. 

Correspondence and class instruction, total enrollment, May 1, 1919 43, 413 

Lectures, concerts, etc., 1917-18, attendance 451, 700 

Visual instruction, estimated attendance 1, 932, 000 

Individuals served by package library service 169, 571 

Attendance at readjustment institutes and conferences 11, 356 

Number of requests for information answered by information department. . . 2, 115 

153448 20 5 



Partly to give an example of extension publicity, charts showing the extent of several 
types of the Wisconsin service of 1914-1916 are presented in the following pages: 

CHAET 1. Extension instructs wherever the mail goes. 

There are 648 spots on this map. Each spot represents a Wisconsin community in which some service 
of the extension division was used in one or more ways during the biennium 1914-1916. 

There are 1,251 post offices in Wisconsin; 51 per cent of these were reached by extension service in the 
biennium 1914-1916. 



CHART 2. Distribution of package library service for the biennium 1914-1916. The University of Wis- 
consin, University Extension Division, Department of Debating and Public Discussion. 

Explanation. "Each spot represents 1 to 50 packages lent. In 45 cities over 50 packages were lent." 

Number of package libraries lent in biennium 1914-1916 11, 136 

Number of package libraries lent in biennium 1912-1914 : 6, 570 

Number of package libraries lent in past 7 years 24, 112 

Increase in the number of packages lent during the biennium over the preceding biennium was 4,566, or 
68 per cent. Number of packages lent in the past biennium was 46 per cent of the total lent in seven years,, 

Packages were sent out at an average rate of 18 a day during 1914-1916. 



CHART 3. Noncircult or direct service in educational lantern slides and motion-picture films, 1915-1916. 
University of Wisconsin, The University Extension Division, Bureau of Visual Instruction. 

Explanation. White spots, slide service; black spots, film service. Spots represent schools and other 
organizations. Numbers indicate sets of slides or reels of film, July 1, 1915, to July 1, 1916. Represent 
service to 260.different places, 466 organizations; 89,625 slides, 1,499 reels of film shown. (These figures are 
gross the totals of frequent relendings.) 


Based on an average commercial charge of 5 cents each for slides, $1.50 a reel for films. 


43,876 slides at 5 cents each $2, 194 

470 reels of film, at $1.50 each 705 


89,625 slides at 5 cents each 4,481 

1,499 reels of film, at $1.50... 2,248 

Total 9,628 



CHART 4. Routing circuit service in educational lantern slides and motion picture films. University of 
Wisconsin, The University Extension Division, Bureau of Visual Instruction. 

Explanation. Each spot represents one package weekly from November 1, 1915, to May 1, 1916. "Six 
circuits with 27 to 33 communities on each circuit." 

Total number of slides in use, 13,808. Total number of slides shown on all, 400,820. Total number of 
reels of film in use, 120. Total number of reels of film shown on all, 3,617. 


Based on an average commercial charge of 5 cents each for slides, $1.50 a reel for films. 


7,200 slides used an average of 35 times each during season $12, 600 

60 reels of film used an average of 35 times each during season - 3,150 


13,808 slides used an average of 29 times during season 20, 021 

120 reels of film used an average of 29 times during season 5, 220 

Total... 40,991 


The following list of institutions and extension activities is fairly 
complete and approximately accurate. The information was obtained 
from catalogues, announcements, and correspondence. 

Since this bulletin is concerned chiefly with university extension, 
no attempt was made in compiling the directory to include all the 
agricultural colleges and the normal schools. 

Institutions and extension activities. 2 

State, institution, place, officerin 


Remarks . 

Alabama: University of Alabama, 

University, J. S. Thomas, director 

extension division. 
Arizona: University of Arizona, 

Tucson, F. G. Lockwood, director 

extension division. 

Arkansas: University of Arkansas, 
Fayetteville, B. C. Riley, director 
general extension division. 

California: University of California, 
Berkeley, L. J. Richardson, direc- 
tor extension division. 

California: Humboldt State Normal, 
Arcata, N. B. Van Matre, princi- 

ifornia: Junior College, River- 
side, A. G. Paul, director of exten- 

Colorado: University of Colorado, 
Boulder, Loran D. Osborn, direc- 
tor extension division. 

Colorado: University of Denver, 
University Park, D. E. Phillips, 
director of extension college. 

Colorado: Colorado State "Teachers 
College, Greeley. 

Colorado: Colorado State Normal 
School, Guimison, Grant Rutland, 
acting president. 

Delaware: Delaware College, New- 
ark, E. V. Vaughan, chairman 
committee on extension. 

District of Columbia: George Wash- 
ington University, Washington, 
W. M. Collier, president. 

District of Columbia: Howard Uni- 
versity (colored), Washington, 
J. S. Durkee, president. 

Florida: University of Florida, 
Gainesville, A. A. Murphree, pres- 

Florida: Florida State College for 
Women, Tallahassee, Edward 
Conradi, president . 

Georgia: University of Georgia, 
Athens, D. C. Barrow, president. 

Georgia: State Normal School, 

Extension lectures, debating and 
public discussion. 

Lectures, correspondence study, 
general information service, field 
work by bureau of mines, debat- 
ing and public discussion. 

Correspondence study, club study, 
class study, lectures, concerts, 
visual instruction, package li- 
braries, community institutes, 
general information, news serv- 

Class instruction, lectures, public 
discussion and club service, mu- 
nicipal reference, general infor- 
mation, visual instruction. 

Correspondence instruction de- 
partment, service of field super- 

Extension classes, lectures 

Correspondence instruction, class 
instruction, vocational instruc- 
tion, lectures, visual instruction, 
community welfare, business 
and commercial development, 
library service, municipal refer- 
ence publications. 

Extension classes and lectures for 
teachers, discussion, and club 

Correspondence study, group 
study courses, institutes, read- 
ing circles, surveys. 

Group study, correspondence 
study, reading circles, rural 

Extension lectures, movable house 
economics schools, service bu- 
reau, evening classes. 

Extension lectures, classes 

Correspondence study. . 

Conferences, lectures, correspond- 
ence study, employment bureau, 
debating, institutes. 

Conferences, lectures, correspond- 
ence study, employment bureau, 
debating, institutes. 

Lectures, discussion service, insti- 
tutes, conferences. 

Correspondence study 

$10,000 appropriation for ex- 
pansion, 1919. 

Organized 1912, reorganized 

Organized 1914-15. 

Organized 1906, reorganized 

Organized 1917. 

Organized 1912; cooperates 
with two other State institu- 

Extension college, supported 
by tuition lees. 

Cooperates with university and 
normal school. 

Cooperates with university and 
teachers' college. 

Double sessions to accommo- 
date Government employees. 

$56,000 appropriated by legisla- 
ture in 1919. 

i The directory is a revision of a mimeograph bulletin prepared by J. J. Schlicher. 

See succeeding pages for fuller tabulation of activities of State university extension services. 


Institutions and extension activities Continued. 


State, institution, place, officerin 


Idaho: University of Idaho, Mos- 
cow, E. H. Lindley, president. 

Idaho: State Normal School, Albion, 
G. A. Axline, principal. 

Idaho: State Normal School, Lewis- 
ton, O. M. Elliot, principal. 

Illinois: University of Illinois, Ur- 
bana, E. J. James, president. 

Illinois: Knox College, Galesburg, 
J. L. McConaughy, president. 

Illinois: University of Chicago, 
Chicago, H. F. Mallory, secretary 
extension division; O. W. Cald- 
well, dean of University College, 

Illinois: Bradley Polytechnic Insti- 
tute, Peoria, T. C. Burgess, presi- 

Illinois : Western Illinois State Nor- 
mal School, Macomb. 

Indiana: Indiana University, 
Bloomington, J. J. Pettijohn, di- 
rector extension division. 

Indiana: Butler College, Indian- 
apolis, J. W. Putnam, director ex- 
tension courses. 

Indiana: Goshen College, Goshen. 

Iowa: University of Iowa, Iowa 
City, O. E. Klingman, director 
extension division. 

Iowa: Iowa State College, Ames, 
R. A. Pearson, president. 

Iowa: Iowa State Teachers College, 
Cedar Falls, J. C. McGlade, direc- 
tor extension division. 

Iowa: Des Moines College, Des 
Moines, J. A. Earl, president. 

Iowa: Drake University, Des Moines, 
A. Holmes, president. 

Kansas: University of Kansas, 
Lawrence, H. G. Ingham, director 
extension division. 

Kansas: State Normal School, Em - 
ppria, C. W. Salser, director exten- 
sion division. 

Kansas: State Agricultural College, 
Manhattan, W. M. Jardine, presi- 

Kansas: Ottawa University, Ot- 
tawa. S. E. Price, president. 

Kentucky: University of Ken- 
tucky, Lexington, Wellington 
Patrick, director extension divi- 

Correspondence study, lectures, 
visual instruction, package li- 
braries, public discussion, gen- 
eral information, welfare service. 

Correspondence study. . 
Correspondence courses. 

Advisory service in community 
problems, engineering short 
courses, movable schools, lec- 

Lectures; debate and discussion... 

Correspondence courses, extension 
classes; conferences; public lec- 

Extension classes 

Classes, institutes, teacher place- 

Correspondence study, class in- 
struction, extension lectures, 
conferences, public discussion, 
package libraries, general infor- 
mation, community institutes, 
visual instruction, surveys and 
investigations; welfare service; 

Correspondence courses. 
Municipal service, business serv- 
ice, public discussion, educa- 
tional service, visual instruction, 
child welfare work, public health 
service, patriotic league, corre- 
spondence study, conferences, 

Engineering extension, vocational 
courses, technical institutes, 
trade courses, bureau of techni- 
cal service, correspondence 
study, extension classes, visual 

Study centers, institutes, exten- 
sion summer schools, lectures, 
concerts, lantern slides. 
City extension classes, home study 

by correspondence. 
Home-study courses 

Correspondence study, package 
libraries, club service, general 
information, lectures, concerts, 
municipal reference, child wel- 
fare work, visual instruction, 
short courses, institutes, confer- 

Appointments, educational meas- 
urements, correspondence study , 
lectures,visualinstruction, serv- 
ice bureaus. 

Reading courses, vocational 
courses, home-study service. 

Assistance in debating and discus- 

Correspondence study, short 
courses in engineering, lectures 
and institutes, public discus- 
sion, package libraries, club serv- 
ice, general information, wel- 
fare service, class instruction in 


Extension division organized 
1914-15; at present the work 
has been partially discontin- 
ued because of insufficient 

Organized 1892; offers 450 
courses in 40 different sub- 

Center offices in Indianapolis, 
and Fort Wayne. Organ- 
ized 1912: reorganized 1914. 

Organized 1913. 

Organized 1906, reorganized 
1913. Ten-day courses held 
in six cities. 

Organized 1909. 

Organized 1914. 

Work done in addition to reg- 
ular agricultural extension. 

Organized 1917-18. 



Institutions and extension activities Continued. 

State, institution, place, officerin 


Remarks . 

Kentucky: Berea College, Berea, 
M. E. Vaughn, superintendent 
extension department. 

Louisiana: Tulane University, New 
Orleans, J. A. Lyon, chairman 
committee on extension. 

Louisiana: Louisiana State Normal 
School, Natchitoches, director ex- 
tension department. 

Maine: University of Maine, Orono, 
K. J. Aley, president. 

Maryland: Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, Baltimore, E. S. Buchner; di- 
rector of extension. 

Maryland: Maryland State College, 
College Park, Thomas B. Sy- 
monds, director general extension 

Massachusetts: State board of edu- 
cation, Boston, J. A. Moyer, direc- 
tor department of university ex- 

Massachusetts: Commission on ex- 
tension courses, Cambridge, J. A. 
Ropes, chairman of the commis- 

Massachusetts: Harvard Univer- 
sity, Cambridge, J. A. Ropes, dean 
of School of Arts and Sciences. 

Massachusetts: Lowell Institute, 
Cambridge, Prof. Charles F. Park. 

Massachusetts: Boston Museum of 
Fine Arts, Huger Elliot, super- 
visor of educational work, Boston. 

Massachusetts: Franklin Union, 
Boston, Walter B. Russel, director, 

Massachusetts: Simmons College, 

Massachusetts: Boston University, 
Boston, Prof. A. H. Rice, director. 

Massachusetts: School for Social 
Workers, Boston, Prof. J. R. 
Brackett, director. 

Massachusetts: Lowell Textile 
School, Lowell. 

Massachusetts: Massachusetts State 
Normal School, North Adams. 

Massachusetts: Connecticut Valley 
CoUeges, Amherst, Charles W. 
Hobbs, executive secretary 

Massachusetts: Williams College, 
North Adams, I. Freeman Hall, 

Michigan: University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, W. D. Henderson, 
director extension division. 

Michigan: Michigan College of Mines, \ 

Michigan: State Normal College, ' 

Minnesota: University of Minnesota, i 

Minneapolis, R. R. Price, director, 

extension division. 

Lectures and demonstrations, 
traveling libraries, religious 

Extension classes, work in agri- 
culture and home economics. 

Employment, institutes, advice 

to teachers, extra-mural classes, 

correspondence study. 
Correspondence study, assistance 

in debating. 
Extension classes in education; 

business economy and technical 

subjects given in evening 

classes ; visual instruction. 
Correspondence study, assistance 

in debating, package libraries, 


Extension classes, correspondence 
study, information service, sur- 

Extension classes; courses carry i Established 1910; the commis- 
credit toward the degree of asso- I sion represents 10 institu- 
ciatein arts. The commission tions. 
cooperates in the administra- 
tion of theschoolof social work- 

Credit courses for teachers 
given first in 1909; special 
classes have been held since 

Organized 1919. 

Established 1915-16. 

Conducts summer school of arts 
and sciences, shares in work of 
commission on extension 
courses, offers degree of associate 
in arts, gives extension courses 
in medicine. 

Free evening lectures and exten- 
sion classes. 

Lectures on art ... 

Evening and Saturday extension 

classes in technical subjects. 
Extension classes. 

Extension classes in college sub- 

Lectures on social and community 

Evening classes bearing directly 
upon their daily work for those 
employed in textile industries. 

Correspondence study. 

Extension classes, mai ily in colle- 
giate subjects. 

Extension classes 

Lectures and class instruction, 
visual instruction, public speak- 
ing and debating, library service, 
package libraries, conferences, 
school service, museum exten- 
sion, municipal reference, ad- 
visory and other service in pub- 
lic health, engineering, etc. 

Extension lectures . . . 

Lectures, classes, correspondence 


Correspondence instruction, class 
instruction, short courses, muni- 
cipal reference, lectures, lyceum, 
institutes, debating, community 
center and other welfare service. 

Reorganized 1910, admission of 
special students is regarded 
as a branch of extension 

Amherest, International Y. M. 
C. A., Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College, Holyoke Col- 
lege, Northfield Schools and 
Smith College, in cooperation 
with the Massachusetts 
Board of Education. 

Organized 1911. 

Reorganized HU3. 

Institutions and extension activities Continued . 


State, institution, place, officer in 

Mississippi: University of Mississippi 
University, J. N. Powers, chan- 

Mississippi: Mississippi Agricultural 
and Mechanical College, Agricul- 
tural College, F. P. Gaines, direc- 
tor service bureau. 

Missouri: University of Missouri, 
Columbia, C. H. Williams, director 
extension division. 

Missouri: State Normal School, Cape 
Girardeau, W. S. Dearmont, prin- 

Missouri: Washington University, 
St. Louis, F. W. Shipley, director 
extension courses. 

Montana: University of Montana, 
Missoula, E.G. Sisson, president. 

Montana: Montana State School of 

Mines, Butte, C. H. Bowman, 

Nebraska: University of Nebraska, 

Lincoln, A. A. Reed, director 

extension division. 

Nevada: University of Nevada, 
Reno, W. E. Clark, president. 

New Jersey: Rutgers College, New 
Brunswick, C. H. Elliot, director 
extension courses. 

New Mexico: University of New 
Mexico, Albuquerque, I). R. Boyd, 


New Mexico: New Mexico Normal 
University, East Las Vegas, F. H. 
H. Roberts, principal. 

New York: University of the State 
of New York, Albany, W. R. 
Watson, chief of division of educa- 
tional extension; A W. Abrams, 
chief of division of visual instruc- 

New York: Columbia University, 
New York, J. C. Egbert, director 
extension teaching. 

New York: Syracuse University, 
Syracuse, M. Elwood Smith, di- 
rector extension courses. 

New York: University of Rochester, 
Rochester, P. B. Gilbert, director 
extension courses. 

New York: State College for Teach- 
ers, Albany, R. H. Kirtland, chair- 
man, committee on extension 

New York: Brooklyn Polytechnic 
Institute, Brooklyn; Charles A. 
Green, director extension courses. 

New York: Adelphi College, Brook- 
lyn, Mary Clarke, secretary ex- 
tension courses. 

New York: College of the City of 
New York, New York, director 
of extension courses. 

Extension courses, lectures 

Correspondence study, general in- 
formation, visual instruction, 
package libraries. 

Coruspondence study, class in- 
struction, lectures and lecture 
courses, lyceum service, public 
information service, package 
libraries, engineering extension. 

Correspondence courses, extension 
center, courses and public lec- 
tures, school service bureau. 

Courses in business, technical and 
other subjects, lectures. 

Correspondence study, class in- 
struction, lectures and lecture 
courses, lyceum service, public 
information service, package li- 
braries, engineering extension. 

Correspondence courses 

Correspondence study, class in- 
struction, lectures, debating and 
public discussion, general infor- 
mation, welfare service, visual 
instruction, community drama 
service, professional service, 
Red Cross work. 

Library, club, and debate service, 
special mining school and classes; 
short courses. 

Lectures, extension classes, special 
courses for teachers, assistance 
in debating and public discus- 

Correspondence study, lectures, 
extension teaching, debating and 
public discussion, general infor- 
mation, surveys and investiga- 
tions, suggestive aid to communi- 
ties, exhibits, conferences, in- 

Correspondence study 

Lecture outlines, traveling libra- 
ries, reading circles, club study, 
lantern slides, pictures. 

Extension classes in New York 
and elsewhere, lectures, insti- 
tutes, home study. 

Lectures, evening classes, exten- 
sion work in forestry and land- 
scape gardening, exhibits, dem- 

Extension classes . . . 


Extension classes, special courses 
for teachers. 

Extension classes, afternoon and 
evening classes. 

Extension classes, evening classes.. 
Extension classes 

In addition to agricultural ex- 

Organized 191U, reorganized 
1913. School of Social Work 
at St. Louis. 

Organized 1910, reorganized 

Organized 1909. 

Reorganized 1912. 
Reorganized 1919. 

Organized 1901, reorganized 
1910; special courses offered 
by School of Practical Arts 
of Teachers College. 

Department of Forest Exten- 
sion organized in 1913. 

Organized 1911. 
Organized 1918. 



Institutions and extension activities Continued. 

State, institution, place, officerin 



New York: New York University. 
New York, James E. Lough, 

New York: Union College, Schenec- 
tady, Charles A. Richmond, presi- 

North Carolina: University of North 
Carolina, Chapel Hill, L. R. Wil- 
son, director extension division. 

North Carolina: North Carolina Nor- 
mal and Industrial College, 
Greensboro, Mary M. Petty, 
chairman extension work. 

North Dakota: University of North 
Dakota, Grand Forks, A. H. 
Yoder, director extension divi- 

Ohio: Miami University, Oxford, 
R. M. Hughes, president. 

Ohio: Ohio University. Athens, 
William E. McVey, director ex- 
tension work. 

Ohio: University of Akron, Akron, 
H. E. Simmons, director com- 
mittee on extension. 

Ohio: Cleveland School of Education, 
Cleveland, Ambrose D. Suhrie, 

Ohio: University of Cincinnati, 
Cincinnati, E. L. Talbert. direc- 
tor extension work. 

Ohio: State Normal College, Kent, 

J. E. McGilvery, principal. 
Ohio: Toledo University, Toledo, 

A. M. Stowe, president. 
Ohio: Denison University , Granville, 

C. W. Chamberlain, president. 
Ohio: Marietta College, Marietta, 

J. B. MacMillan, president. 
Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma, 

Norman, J. W. Scroggs, director 

extension division. 

Oregon: University of Oregon, 
Eugene, John A. Almack, direc- 
tor extension division. 

Oregon: Reed College, Portland, 
W. T. Foster, president. 

Pennsylvania: University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, E. F. 
Smith, provost. 

Pennsylvania: University of Pitts- 
burgh, Pittsburgh, J. H. Kelley, 
director extension division. 

Pennsylvania: Drexel Institute, 
Philadelphia, Hollis Godfrey, 

Pennsylvania: Carnegie Institute of 
Technology, Pittsburgh, A. A. 
Hamerschlag, president. 

Pennsylvania: Lehigh University, 
Bethlehem, Percy Hughes, direc- 
tor extension courses. 

Extension classes, public-health 
correspondence study. 

Extension classes 

Correspondence study , lectures , de- 
bate and declamation, surveys, 
municipal reference, advisory 
school service, institutes, special 
bulletin series, visual instruc- 

Lectures, club service, advisory 
service, commercial correspond- 
ence courses. 

Correspondence study, publicity 
and information, club service, 
package libraries, debate and 
declamation, lectures, lyceum 
service, visual instruction. 

Extension classes, teachers' con- 
ferences, loan of slides, labora- 
tory material. 

Extension classes, traveling libra- 

Extension classes, cooperation with 
city authorities, lecture courses. 

Extension classes. . . 

Evening classes, cooperative 
courses in engineering, munici- 
pal reference service, home 
economics service. 

Extension courses. . . 

Research, laboratory, and other 

service to the city. 
Extension classes and lectures 

Extension classes. 

Correspondence study, class study, 
lectures, public discussion and 
debate, general information, 
municipal reference, traveling 
libraries, public welfare service, 
visual instruction. 

Correspondence study, class study, 
lectures, reading circles, visual 
instruction, community music, 

* child welfare, public informa- 
tion, public discussion, other 
public service. 

Extension lectures 

Extension classes in finance and 
commerce, special courses for 

Correspondence study, class in- 
struction, lectures, public dis- 
cussion, debate, general infor- 
mation , package libraries , visual 
instruction, business develop- 
ment, community center, and 

* other welfare work. 

Extension classes in domestic arts 
and science and physical train- 
ing, cooperation with indus- 

Extension classes, night school 
and afternoon classes in busi- 
ness subjects, social work, etc. 

Evening extension classes at Beth- 
lehem and other towns. 

Extra-mural division opened 

Organized 1911. 

Organized 1901, committee on 
university extension. 

Organized 1910, work confined 
largely to southeastern Ohio. 

Cooperation in testing, home 
demonstration, playground 

Cooperation with Western Re- 
serve University and other 
local institutions. 

Department of extension teach- 

Admits "extension students" 
for noncredit work. 

Organized 1905, reorganized 

Evening School of Accounts 
and Finance, T. J. Grayson, 


Institutions and extension activities -Continual. 


State, institution, place, officer in 

Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State 
College, State College, J. T. Marsh- 
man, director liberal arts exten- 
sion; R. L. Sackett, director en- 

Rhode Island: Brown University, 
Providence, W. F. Jacobs, director 
university extension. 

Rhode Island: Rhode Island State 
College, Kingston, H. Edwards, 

South Carolina: University of South 
Carolina, Columbia, J. O. Van 
Meter, director extension depart- 

South Carolina: Winthrop College, 
Rock Hill, David B. Johnson, 

South Dakota: University of South 
Dakota, Vermilion, J. C. Tjaden, 
acting director. 

Tennessee: University of Tennessee, 
Knoxville, Charles E. Ferris, dean 
in charge extension division. 

Tennessee: Peabody College for 
Teachers, Nashville, R. W. Sal- 
vidge, in charge of extension. 

Texas: University of Texas, Austin, 
E. D. Shurter, director extension 

Texas: Howard Payne College, 
Brownwood, J. A. Tblman, presi- 

Texas: Baylor University, Waco, 
Lula Place, chairman extension 

Texas: Southwestern University, 
Georgetown, C. M. Bishop, presi- 

Texas: Westminster College, Tehu- 
acana, J. C. Williams, president. 

Utah: University of Utah, Salt 
Lake City, F. W. Reynolds, direc- 
tor extension division. 

Virginia: University of Virginia, 
Charlottesville, C. G. Maphis, di- 
rector of extension work. 

Vermont: University of Vermont, 
Burlington, Guy P. Benton, presi- 

West Virginia: University of West 
Virginia, Morgantown, L. B. Hill, 
director extension division. 

Washington: University of Wash- 
ington, Seattle, Edwin A. Start, di- 
rector extension division. 

Washington: Washington State 
College, Pullman, F. F. Nalder, 
director general extension. 

Washington: State Normal School, 
Bellingham, G. W. Nash, princi- 


Extension lectures, debating, cor- 
respondence, and evening 
courses, apprentice schools. 

Lecture courses, extension classes 

Home study courses. 

Correspondence study, class work, 
debating, package libraries, 
rural sociology, lectures, general 
welfare, assistance in teachers' 
meetings, etc., comparative en- 
gineering courses. 

Lectures, demonstrations, com- 
munity entertainment. 

Extension classes, correspondence 
work, visual instruction, debat- 
ing, package libraries, lectures. 

Lectures, debating, visual instruc- 

Correspondence courses, lectures.. 

Correspondence study , group study 
courses, class instruction, pack- 
age libraries, lectures, short 
courses, general information, 
visual instruction, debating, 
school service, welfare service. 

Correspondence courses 


Correspondence study. 


Correspondence study, extension 
classes, lectures and entertain- 
ments, general information, de- 
bating and . discussion, visual 
instruction, institutes, health 
work and other welfare service. 

Lectures, debating, package li- 
braries, bulletins, appointments, 
high school quarterly, visual 

Courses for teachers, school con- 
ferences, lectures, special exten- 
sion classes on demand. 

Correspondence study, extension 
credit courses in various centers 
of the State; school of good 
roads, conferences, visual in- 

Correspondence study, class in- 
struction, lectures, general infor- 
mation, debate and discussion, 
package libraries, conferences, 
surveys, medical clinics and 
welfare work. 

Debating and public discussion, 
home economics extension. 

Lectures, correspondence study, 
extension classes, advisory work. 


Organized 1906. 

Organized 1907. 
Organized 1904. 

Reorganized 1918-19. 

Organized 1913-14. 

Reorganized 1918. 

Organized 1912. 

General extension division 
organized 1919. 



Institution and extension activities Continued. 

State,institution, place, officer in 



Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, W. H. Lighty, acting 
dean extension division. 

Wisconsin: Beloit College, Beloit, 

Dean G. L. Collie, chairman com- 
mittee on extension. 
Wisconsin: Marquette University, 

Milwaukee, C. K. Atkinson, dean. 
Wyoming: University of Wyoming, 

Laramie, H. C. Dale, director of 

correspondence study. 

Correspondence study, class in- 
struction, lyceum service, debat- 
ing and discussion, package 
libraries, visual instruction, 
community institutes, health 
instruction, and other welfare 

Extension classes 

Organized 1*92, reorganized 


Correspondence courses, lectures, 
extension classes, traveling li- 
braries, general information. 

Reorganized 1913; non-resident 


The following statement, with notes, is intended to give a brief 
survey of both the organization and the types of activities of each 
of the extension divisions in State universities. 

The classification into departments and bureaus and the group- 
ing of activities correspond in most cases to announcements and 
catalogues published by each institution. In some cases the list 
of activities does not correspond with the actual plan as followed in 
1918-19, because several divisions have recently reorganized, and 
also because war-time service and later readjustments changed to 
some degree the normal process of extension work. 

In order to avoid excessive repetition it was found necessary to 
condense greatly the descriptions of the divisions' services and to 
omit many minor items. 

Statements are given for 28 State universities. Several others 
which have extension organization are not included, either because 
their activities are comparatively limited, as in the case of South 
Carolina, or because they are not yet definitely projected and devel- 
oped, as in the case of the newly organized division at the University 
of West Virginia. 

In order to afford opportunity for comparison with State univer- 
sity systems, descriptions are included of Columbia University, 
the Massachusetts systems of extension, the University of Chicago, 
and the Mississippi service bureau. 


Correspondence instruction. The subjects taught include agriculture, architecture, 
astronomy, botany, education, history, philosophy, Spanish, etc. Two types of 
courses are offered formal and informal, credit and noncredit courses. 

Extension lectures. These are usually given without cost to the community, though 
sometimes the expenses of the speaker are met by the local committee. 

Public discussion. The department offers service to schools, clubs, and other 
organizations interested in debate and public discussion. Considerable material 
is available and may be secured on request. 

General information service. Inquiries on public questions are answered by the 


The work is being reorganized (1919) and will be considerably expanded. As in 
the case of several institutions, the University of Arizona conducts some extension 
work through other departments than that of extension. The bureau of mines does 
field work, conducts safety campaigns, offers first-aid and mine-rescue courses, cir- 
culates motion-picture films, and gives an information service on mining problems. 

1 These notes are based on tables prepared by J. J. Schlicher and incorporated in a mimeograph bulletin, 
"General Extension Work Done by Universities and Colleges in the United States," issued by the divi- 
sion of educational extension, May, 1919. Supplementary matter has been added to the tables, and a 
considerable number of changes have been made. 





Correspondence study. Some courses available are for university credit; others, 
such as directed reading courses covering practically the same ground, are not given 
for credit. 

Club study. Opportunity for study and reading is offered, particularly to teachers 
and club women. Upon request, a course of reading is outlined and a textbook 
selected; also several reference books are indicated, together with a full list of refer- 
ences and suggested topics for papers and reports. Courses in education, literature, 
social science, hygiene, economics, political science, and agriculture are offered. 

Class study. This department is supervised by members of the faculty. Classes 
usually meet at night. 

Extension lectures and lyceum courses. -^-These are suited for programs of women's 
clubs, business men's leagues, institutes, conventions, commencement exercises and 
holiday programs. 

The extension division acts as a clearing house for concert companies, assisting 
communities to secure lyceum courses. 


Lantern slides and films. Sets of slides, many of them accompanied by lecture 
outlines, are furnished free except for transportation charges. A partial list is in the 
catalogue. Films and phonograph records are also furnished. 

Package libraries. Packages of material for papers and debates on agricultural and 
present-day questions. State high school debating league. Plays and recitation 

Community institutes. Two and three day programs, consisting of lectures, demon- 
strations, exhibits, conferences, and entertainment, are held in towns and cities. 
The institutes are designed to reach the various urban groups and deal with community 
problems. The general extension division, in conjunction with the agriculture 
extension, holds "Farmers' Chautauquas," laoting from one to three days. 

General information. -Information on science, engineering, education, literature, 
or art is furnished free to individuals, clubs, civic societies, and public boards. 

The general extension division works in close cooperation with the agricultural 
extension division. A well-developed press and publicity service is maintained. 


Class instruction. For cities and towns, courses are offered when a sufficient num- 
ber of students can be secured for the same subjects. A list of these courses is given 
in special announcements. A special list is issued for southern California. Summer 
classes are given in San Francisco and Oakland. 

Correspondence instruction. Special business courses are offered. Among other 
courses given are music, sewing, millinery, education, and playground work, oral and 
dental hygiene, art appreciation, history, political science, journalism, foreign lan- 
guages, technical subjects, secretarial training. 

Bureau of lectures. In series of 6 or 12 for clubs, organizations, or communities. 
Printed outlines accompany the lectures. Professional lecturers and musical com- 
panies are also furnished. 

Bureau of public discussion. The bureau promotes discussion of public questions 
and assists in organizing and conducting debating clubs and discussion centers. 

The bureau publishes bulletins and cooperates with the State and county libraries 
in recommending material. It conducts the Interscholastic Public Speaking League 
of California. 


Bureau of municipal reference. The bureau acts as a clearing house for inquiries 
and information on municipal affairs, and maintains collections of books, public 
documents, etc., on problems of city government and administration. It is allied 
with the League of California Municipalities. 

Bureau of general .information. The inquiries received, of whatever nature, are 
referred to various departments or individuals of the faculty. 

Visual instruction. The department collects and circulates large numbers of 
slides, films, and exhibits, and sends them in rotation to the public schools and to 


Three main offices are maintained at Berkeley, San Francisco, and Los Angeles, 
besides centers at San Diego, Santa Barbara, Fresno, Sacramento, Red Bluff, and 
Eureka. Emphasis is placed on class, correspondence work and lectures. 

During the war and in 1919, the division has been partially reorganized.' The 
bureau of public discussion has been temporarily discontinued. 



Bureau of correspondence instruction. Work is given in secondary subjects, voca- 
tional subjects, and subjects of university grade; credit is given for the last two. 

Class instruction. This is conducted under university instructors, local instructors 
or leaders from the classes. There is a list of courses given in the extension announce- 

Bureau of vocational instruction. The bureau organizes classes among industrial 
groups, and combines certain welfare features with the instruction for coal miners, 
workers in sugar factories, etc. 


Lectures and visual instruction. Lectures are given by university professors and 
others, both single lectures and courses. Stereoptican slides are sent out in circuits 
to the public schools for the purpose of supplementing by visual means the regular 
classroom instruction. 

Business and commercial development. Business surveys are made to determine 
business and trade activities and possibilities in Colorado communities. Business 
short courses are conducted for the purpose of giving business men new scientific 
knowledge of business and commerce. Cooperative work is undertaken with com- 
mercial clubs. Business correspondence study courses and classes are given for 
more formal instruction. 

Information and library-extension service. Books, magazines, and package libraries 
are sent out to high schools, clubs, and individuals for use in public discussions, 
debate, and for general information. General-information service is also afforded. 

Bureau of municipal reference. A municipal reference bureau is maintained for the 
purpose of furnishing information and suggestions to the municipal governments of 
the State. 

Publications. General university extension publications and pamphlets are 
written by members of the university faculty. 

Community welfare activities and conferences. Preliminary surveys are made of 
community needs, followed by an institute of three or four days' duration, partic- 
ipated in by university men, local speakers, and members of the State welfare com- 
missions. In the follow-up work in these communities, the secretary of the welfare 
bureau acts as a general civic secretary. 



The following is a copy of a portion of the bill introduced in the Florida Legislature 
appropriating money for university extension: 1 

"SECTION 1. The State board of control is hereby empowered and directed to 
extend the outside work of the educational institutions under its direction into all 
fields of human endeavor wnich, in its judgment, will best accomplish the objects 
herein expressed. 

"SEC. 2. It shall be the duty of the board of control to gather information on all 
subjects useful to the people of Florida, and to carry it to them in ways that will 
help them most in the shortest time; to spread knowledge among them by taking it 
to them in an attractive way; to stimulate thought and encourage every movement 
among the people for their mutual improvement. 

"SEC. 3. To carry out the provisions of this act, the board of control is hereby 
empowered to enlarge the work now done by the extension divisions of the University 
of Florida and the State College for Women, as it may from time to time deem ad- 
visable, and to employ all needful persons and appliances to carry on the work in the 
most efficient manner. 

"SEC. 4. It shall be the duty of the board of control to seek out, among all the 
schools of Florida, every student who may by nature have a special aptitude and 
genius for some one branch of learning, and to encourage him in the prosecution of 
the study of that branch, to the end that he may become an expert and a leader in 
that subject." 


Correspondence study and forestry correspondence. Courses for credit are given; 
courses to aid in preparation for teachers' certificates; classes for clubs and study 
groups. Correspondence courses in forestry are offered. 

Lectures. Lectures are conducted by members of the faculty. 

Package libraries. Package libraries are sent out by the general university library. 

The university catalogue of 1919 states that at present the work of university ex- 
tension is devoted mainly to service in agriculture extension. 


"Extension work has not been organized as a separate administrative unit in the 
University of Illinois. Several departments, however, have initiated activities, 
botfi on the campus and in the State at large, which serve to make some facilities 
of the University available to groups of mature persons who are engaged in various in- 
dustries and professions." 2 

The separate service "known as agricultural college extension offers courses in 
the principles and methods of extension work, conducts extension enterprises that 
do not deal with technical subjects, and cooperates with other departments in pro- 
jecting their work in the State." 

The department of ceramic engineering cooperates with the clay and allied indus- 
tries by offering annually a two weeks' industrial course for those who have not the 
time or the preparation required for academic studies. 

Correspondence work is done in home economics and club study. Requests for 
information on food, planning of the house, feeding of children, preparation of topics 
for club study are answered by the home economics department. 

The department conducts movable schools, one or two weeks of instruction by one 
or more instructors. 

> For the budget items see p. 104. 

* Quoted from the catalogue of the University O f Illinois, 1919. 


Similar service is given to various organizations, academies, boys' and girls' clubs, 
chambers of commerce, civic leagues, library associations, woman's clubs. 


Correspondence study department. The department offers 450 courses for credit in 
40 different subjects. During the past 27 years it has reached 21,000 persons. It 
has students in every State. 

University college. The university maintains separate offices and classrooms in 
the down-town section of Chicago. A large number of classes are conducted on 
business subjects and in the arts and sciences. 

American institute of sacred literature. The institute is a department of the uni- 
versity. As an organization it antedates the university by 10 years. It was incorpo- 
rated in the university in 1905. It conducts all nonresident and biblical work. It 
offers the following: Outline Bible-study courses; the work of the ministers' guild; 
traveling libraries; survey courses for Sunday -school teachers; home-reading courses; 
advanced correspondence courses; publications. 



Bureau of correspondence study. Courses are listed in extension announcement. 
Several hundred courses are open to any persons in the State. Academic require-, 
ments are exacted. 

Class instruction. Two centers are supported in Indiana, one at Indianapolis and 
one at Fort Wayne. Special announcements give the lists of courses offered. Credit 
and noncredit courses are given. Classes in special and practical subjects are offered. 
Classes are given on demand, in smaller cities of the State, under certain conditions. 

Extension lectures. Extension lectures are generally assigned to the members of 
the university faculty. Specialists from other States are also secured for- short lec- 
ture tours. 


Public conferences. Public conferences are given on welfare and educational sub- 
jects. State conferences have been held on history teaching in secondary schools, 
educational measurements, taxation, and play and recreation. The proceedings are 
published in bulletins. 

Bureau of public discussion. The department offers service to debating societies, 
civic clubs, and literary clubs. Package libraries and bibliographies are furnished 
on present-day questions. It conducts a State High School Discussion League, 
cooperatively, on current subjects. 

Package libraries.- Besides package libraries, outlines for reading clubs are sup- 
plied. Special service is given upon receipt of requests for information which can 
not be met by regular package library and bibliography service. 

Bureau of visual instruction. The bureau lends lantern slides and motion-picture 
films on academic and welfare subjects. It also lends exhibits of pictures, prints, 
photographs, and framed original paintings. Topical exhibits on the following sub- 
jects have been circulated: Health, visiting nurses, pure milk, housing, play and 
recreation, school surveys, parent-teacher activities, and child welfare. Programs 
and exhibits are offered on public welfare. 

Surveys and investigations. These are conducted to secure data necessary for 
intelligent community action, in cooperation with boards of education, chambers of 
commerce, civic societies, etc. In addition, investigations are made of special com- 
munity problems, such as markets in small cities, and cooperative retail delivery. 
153448 20-^ 6 


Community centers. Assistance is given in organizing centers. General service 
supplements center programs with lectures, slides, etc. 

Community institutes. Programs of lectures, conferences, exhibits, demonstrations 
on community problems (generally a three days' program) are held in small cities, 
upon request. About 8 to 10 each 3* ear are held. 

Publications. Twelve bulletins are issued annually, on such subjects as training 
for citizenship, town beautification, etc. Also, there are printed a number of cir- 
culars on general welfare subjects and special subjects. 


Several lines of special work, such as the promotion of community, centers and 
parent- teacher associations, are supported. Child- welfare work is done in coopera- 
tion with the State boards and agencies like the Red Cross, the State child-welfare 
committee, and local clubs. 



Bureau of public administration. 1 The bureau deals directly with problems of 
government and administration, especially with reference to (1) municipal adminis- 
tration, (2) township administration, (3) county administration, and (4) State 
administration of Iowa. 

Bureau of municipal information. The bureau is designed to be of service in 
handling all the phases of city, town, or village life in Iowa. 

Bureau of social welfare. The bureau cooperates with charity organizations, social 
centers, and all other agencies having for their aim the social betterment of com- 
munities. The bureau has made a number of surveys in the larger cities of Iowa, 
dealing with constructive charity. Survey service can be secured by commercial 
clubs, philanthropic agencies, or boards of supervisors. 

Business administration. 'Service through business institutes and by means of 
single lectures. Assistance is given in fields of business management, business organ- 
ization, business surveys, salesmanship, and accounting service. 

Debating and public speaking. High schools are given direct aid by correspondence, 
personal interviews, and special bulletins. 

Public health. Work in public health is being carried on in cooperation with the 
American Red Cross. Classes in personal hygiene and home care of the sick are 
organized and taught in any locality upon request from any chapter. 

Educational service. This service has been chiefly concerned with the following 
types of work: 

1. Fostering the use of educational tests and scales. Most of the standard tests 
and scales are kept in stock and sold at cost. Comparable results are available in 
many of these tests, and the bureau assists in the interpretation of results obtained 
and in planning remedial measures. 

2. State-wide surveys have been made in the subjects of writing, arithmetic, and 

3. On invitation of the superintendent and school board a survey of the school 
system of any district will be made and recommendations rendered. This service 
has been given to a number of communities during the past two years. 

4. Cooperative studies. The bureau is a central agency for the coordination and 
direction of cooperative studies of educational problems lying in the general survey 
field Correspondence is solicited from superintendents and principals concerning 
their special problems. 

1 The bureaus of public administration, municipal information, and social welfare deal more largely with 
the problems which have little or no connection with the public schools. 


Lantern-slide service. A large number of lantern slides especially made for Iowa 
schools have been prepared. These slides are divided into sets containing from 50 
to 100 slides, each set being accompanied by a complete descriptive lecture. 

Child welfare. A child-welfare exhibit can be secured by any organization interested 
in this phase of social welfare. 

Lectures. These are provided for the community in accordance with special arrange- 
ments made by the extension division. 

Package library service. For high schools and similar institutions; for business men. 

Correspondence study. University credit is given under certain conditions. 

Patriotic league. This is distinct from the educational service. Bibliographies 
on the questions of the day, with suggestions as to how these can be handled in the 
various high-school activities. At present the league has an enrollment of approxi- 
mately 22,000 high-school students. 


Conferences are held on municipal affairs, school supervision, organization and 
administration, child welfare, and vocational education. There are conferences of 
Iowa newspaper men, commercial club secretaries, public health officials, and relig- 
ious workers. 

Special work in recreation is done, e. g., training camp for camp-fire girls and 
training camp for scoutmasters. 

The extension division has conducted a number of short courses in retailing for the 
Iowa State Retail Association. Programs cover such topics as the following: Profit- 
able business publicity, the community influences that shape business, etc. 


Department of correspondence study. The department offers instruction in pre- 
paratory subjects and in vocational subjects, and also gives instruction of university 

Department of general information. The department furnishes package libraries, 
prepares outlines of study for clubs, supplies material for debate, gives information 
on matters of general interest, recommends and furnishes plays and recitations, sup- 
plies lectures, commencement speakers, and concert companies. 

Department of municipal reference. Supplies information on municipal matters to 
officials and others. 

Department of child welfare. Assists schools, parents, and organizations in all mat- 
ters pertaining to the welfare of the child. 


The division also conducts merchants' short courses and five-day programs of 
classes and lectures on merchandising problems. 

The division has developed a considerable visual instruction service, lending both 
slides and motion-picture films. 

The division organizes regular extension classes in different cities in the State. 
These classes are conducted for university credit and for credit toward certificates of 
vocational training. 

During the war the division conducted war conferences and community institutes 
and secured speakers on war topics. 




Bureau of correspondence study. Regular university studies may be taken for credit. 
Preparatory courses are also offered. The bureau furnishes study outlines and other 
assistance to clubs and individuals. 

Bureau of lectures. The university offers, through the bureau, lectures singly or in 
series; speakers for institutes; commencement addresses; lectures for special pur- 
poses, including Americanization. 

Bureau of debating and public discussion. The bureau supplies subjects for debates, 
with bibliographies, facts, and arguments on special subjects, guides, reports, and 
bulletins. The bureau fosters discussion by civic organizations, maintains package 
library service, and cooperates with the department of public speaking in holding 
State debating contests. 

Bureau of general information and welfare. The activities fall along the following 

1. Clearing house for inquiries. 

2. Reports on special subjects. 

3. Information on social conditions, municipal problems, etc. 

4. Assistance in community dramatics. 

The division of university extension was definitely organized in 1919. Previously 
extension work was conducted by a faculty committee. 


Correspondence instruction. Academic courses are given as well as many special 
practical courses, such as retail salesmanship, household management, plan reading 
and estimating, safety engineering, civics for naturalization. Most courses contain 
20 assignments or lessons. Shorter courses of 10 assignments have been successfully 

Class instruction. Subjects are taught by the usual class method in centers in 
different parts of Massachusetts. No tuition fees are charged. 

Special information service. In the department of university extension experts in 
a variety of subjects are employed as instructors. Thus there is available for students 
a wide range of expert information, in case an arrangement is provided to place it 
promptly and easily within reach of individuals. Such an arrangement has been 
provided, and there are indications that, as this service becomes generally known, 
it will be widely used. 

Through its information service the department offers to answer or give expert 
opinion on any reasonable question that falls within its regular fields of study, namely, 
mechanics, mathematics, engineering, English, Spanish, French, civics, economics, 
history, business administration, household economics, education. 

Publications. The department publishes bulletins six times a year. They are of 
two kinds: Announcements of courses, and pamphlets to give permanent and readily 
usable form to educational material of special significance. 


The commission represents the following 10 educational institutions: Harvard 
University, Tufts College, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston College, 
Boston University, Museum of Fine Arts, Wellesley College, Simmons College, Mas- 
sachusetts Board of Education, school committee of the City of Boston. Courses of 
college credit are given by college professors. Students must meet college require- 


Courses carry credit toward the degree of associate of arts at Harvard, Radcliffe, 
Tufts, and Wellesley. For this degree, 17 full courses are required of the student, 
which must include the equivalent of one full course from each of the following: 

1. Language, literature, fine arts, or music. 

2. Natural sciences. 

3. History, or political and social sciences. 

4. Philosophy, or mathematics. 


The extension division includes the following 13 bureaus: 

University extension courses. The extension division offers free extension lectures. 
The lectures are arranged in series, according to the credit plan. A list of these is 
given in the extension announcement. Extension courses are given for credit. 

Visual instruction. The bureau' furnishes slides, charts, and films. A list of the 
slides available is published in the extension announcement. 

Public speaking and debating. The bureau conducts a high school debating league. 
Briefs and data are furnished. 

Library extension service. Package libraries are lent, together with bibliographies. 
Loans are made to other libraries; abstracts of articles are drawn up; advice and other 
s ervice is given to individuals, to civic clubs, and other organizations. 

Extension conferences. Conferences on municipal, civic, and health problems are 
held for teachers, librarians, and others. 

Public service, department of education. The bureau makes inspection of schools, 
conducts school surveys, has a psychological testing service and a teachers' appoint- 
ment service. 

Museum extension service. The bureau gives information, lends specimens, and 
publishes bulletins. 

Municipal reference bureau. Information is supplied on municipal problems and 
government administration. Documents and other material are lent. 

Architecture and civic improvement. Educational and advisory service, including 
lectures and class instruction. 

Landscape design and civic improvement. Lectures, counsel on city planning, and 
general advice. 

Forestry extension service. Lectures, advice, and testing of commercial woods. 

Engineering extension service. Courses in highway engineering, laboratory service, 

Public health service. Service of the Pasteur Institute, and of a dental clinic; labor- 
atory and hospital service; lectures. 


"In connection with its extension service the University of Michigan seeks to 
operate, as far as possible, through the avenue of established university channels; it 
seeks to make use of such existing university facilities as are available. For example, 
its library extension service is carried on through the medium of the regularly organ- 
ized library staff; questions relating to municipal affairs are referred to the municipal 
reference bureau; those touching on forestry to the forestry department; extension 
service affecting road improvement and sanitary engineering, to the municipal, high- 
way and sanitary departments of the engineering college; matters relating to public 
health, to the medical schools, and so on. In other words, the policy of the Univer- 
sity of Michigan is to render to the people of the State, through the medium of its 
extension division, the largest possible measure of public service commensurate with 
the equipment and facilities of an educational institution of university grade." ' 

Bulletin of the University of Michigan, "Extension Service 1918-19." 



Correspondence instruction. Courses are offered in collegiate, industrial, and busi- 
ness branches. Courses for credit. 

Class instruction. Classes are organized in larger cities. Courses are given for credit 
in science, literature, art, business, and engineering. 

Short courses. One and three-week courses in merchandising. A one-year course 
is given in business. Outlines of the courses are given in the extension announcement. 

Municipal reference bureau. Material is collected on city problems. The program 
of the League of Minnesota Municipalities is prepared by the bureau, whose secretary 
is editor of its official magazine, "Minnesota Municipalities. ' ' Conventions are held. 

Lecture and lyceum service. Single lectures are given, and also lectures in series. 
The department has charge of lyceum courses of popular lectures, concerts, and 

University weeks. Six-day programs of educational lectures and entertainment by 
faculty members, students and professional musicians, designed to present the prin- 
cipal activities of university life. 

Visual instruction. The department sends out sets of slides, each with a syllabus 
or typewritten lecture. A list is given in the extension announcement. 

Community drama service. Plays suitable for amateur acting are selected and sent 
out. Advice is given as to costumes and scenery. 

Community centers. Service of an organizer for the promotion of wider use of 
schools and of greater, town success. Advice, model constitutions, programs, etc. 

Debating and general information bureau. The bureau conducts a State high-school 
debating league and prepares bulletins .and bibliographies. 


Correspondence courses. College and high-school courses. A list is published 
in the extension announcement. All college courses count toward graduation. 

Lecture courses in extension centers. Extension lectures are given on special sub- 
jects pursued at the centers. Lectures are given by an instructor, written papers 
are required, and a final examination is held. If the work is successfully done, 
credit is given. 

Loan of books. The university library lends books for study in the extension 
courses and also upon special application to high schools and individuals. 

Package libraries and debating. The university library and the Missouri State 
library commission send out packages of debating material free of charge, except 
for transportation. The material covers both sides of given questions and may be 
retained six weeks. The same material when not used in high schools is available 
for clubs and community centers. 

Lantern slides. The department furnishes to high schools sets of from 20 to 90 
slides free except for transportation. A list is given in the extension announcement. 

Art exhibit. The department of art of the university sends out a special collection 
of exhibits to a number of the larger schools free except for transportation. 

Bulletins of information. Bulletins on subjects of general and special interest. 

Municipal reference bureau. The bureau furnishes information to cities and towns 
of Missouri on questions relating to civic affairs. Collections of bulletins and news- 
paper clippings on various topics, e. g., waterworks, sewers, lighting, paving. 

School of social economy, St. Louis. The school has been placed under the general 
direction of the division of university extension. It offers advantages for special 
training in sociology and social welfare work. Teaching and investigations are 
under the direct charge of Dr. George B. Mangold. 



Correspondence study department. Courses are given through correspondence 
in the following departments of the college of arts and sciences: Art, business admin- 
istration, English and literature, Greek, history, home economics, journalism, Latin, 
library science, mathematics, modern languages, psychology, zoelogy. Credit 
toward graduation is given by the university for correspondence work of collegiate 
rank, but the maximum credit toward a university degree which may be earned by 
correspondence study may not exceed one-half of the credits required for graduation. 

Department of public lectures. Lectures are given singly and in series. During 
the war a course of lectures on "Nations of the War' ' was given in some of the largest 
cities of the State. The extension division supplies lyceum courses and commence- 
ment speakers. 

Extension courses in connection with the correspondence study department have 
been given in various cities of the State. The instructor lectures every two weeks 
to the class, which in the meantime prepares certain written work. 

Bureau of public information. The bureau was established for the purpose of 
furnishing information on all classes of subjects. Each letter of inquiry is answered 
carefully, and when full information is desired for debates, etc., package libraries 
are sent out by the university library. 

At the College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Bozeman, through the engineering 
extension service, courses are offered in shop calculation, drawing, design, electrical 
machinery, heat and steam, internal-combustion engines, etc. 


Correspondence study. Credit and noncredit courses. 

Instruction by lectures. Nearly all the members of the faculty are available as 

Debating and public discussion. The department maintains a loan library of books, 
periodicals, etc., relating to questions of the day. It issues bulletins on social topics 
and keeps in touch by correspondence or personal interview with civic leagues, 
town councils, library and school boards, business men's clubs, and high-school 
societies. It also conducts a high-school debating league. 

General information and welfare. The purpose of the department is to investigate 
problems artistic, literary, historical, social, industrial, political, and educational 
and also special problems in government and business, sanitation, lighting, banking. 
Information is given on request. It furnishes lantern slides and films to high schools 
and educational gatherings. Aid is given in dramatic art by sending out persons 
to drill individuals or groups, and by supplying appropriate selections. 

Red Cross work. Extension courses are offered in first aid, home nursing, surgical 
dressing, and dietetics. The university aids the department of civilian relief in 
instituting chapter courses. 


Classes in commerce, engineering, history, and art are organized from time to time 
at Lincoln and Omaha. A bureau of professional service gives aid to school boards 
and others desiring to secure competent professional assistance by securing and tran- 
scribing information regarding vacancies and the qualifications of candidates. 


The university conducts three schools of mines, at Tonapah, Ely, and Goldfield. 
They give secondary training in mining and milling subjects. Classes are held in 
the morning and evening to accomodate shifts of workmen. The university offers 
a prospectors' short course of four weeks' duration, consisting of lectures and class work 
in assaying, mineralogy, geology, etc. 



Correspondence study. Correspondence study is under the direction of the univer- 
sity faculty. 

Lectures. Lectures are given in series, with syllabi, for study clubs, and single 
lectures for special groups and general audiences. 

Extension teaching. In cooperation with educational institutions conducting 
continuation and evening schools. 

Debating and public discussion. Stimulated by State contests. Bulletins containing 
formulated questions with briefs and bibliographies, and library loan material. 

General information. On matters pertaining to education, State and local govern- 
ment, public health, civic improvement, and other subjects. 

Surveys, research, and investigation. These are made in fields and on subjects oi 
community and State importance. 

Suggestive aid. Aid is given to county, town, and municipal boards, commissions, 
and councils, school boards, commercial clubs, civic and economic betterment asso- 

Exhibits, conferences, and institutes. These are held for public information upon 
vocational, educational, and social welfare matters. 

The division was reorganized in 1919, and provision made for expansion of the work 
previously conducted. 



The statutes of the university define extension teaching as instruction given by 
university officers and under the administrative supervision and control of the uni- 
versity, either away from the university buildings or at the university, for the benefit 
of students unable to attend the regular courses of instruction. 

Students. Courses in extension teaching are planned for two classes of students: 
(1) Men and women who can give only a portion of their time to study and who desire 
to pursue subjects included in a liberal education of the character and grade of a 
college or professional school, but without any reference to an academic degree; (2) 
those who look forward to qualifying themselves to obtain in the future academic 
recognition involving acceptance of the work which they may satisfactorily complete 
in extension teaching. 

Courses of instruction. Under the direction of the university council, courses are 
offered in extension teaching which count toward the degrees of master of arts and 
doctor of philosophy. Regular courses of instruction are offered in extension teaching 
which, in many instances, are coordinated so as to form at least the first years of colle- 
giate and professional work, thus providing in the evening at Morningside Heights, 
and elsewhere, courses in subjects which are generally offered in the freshman, sopho- 
more, and junior years of college, so that students may qualify themselves for admis- 
sion with advanced standing to Columbia College and Barnard College or other insti- 
tutions, as candidates for the degrees of bachelor of arts and bachelor of science. 

There are also offered at Morningside Heights subjects which are required of students 
in the schools of mines, engineering, and chemistry. Evening courses are offered 
in architecture, leading to a certificate; also evening courses in business; and a series 
of courses intended to equip students for the position of private secretary, 

V two-year course in practical optics is offered in cooperation with the department 
of physics for the special training of those who expect to become optometrists. 

Teachers' college offers in cooperation with the department of extension teaching 
about 130 technical courses in the various fields of pracitical arts, i. e., household arts, 
fine arts, industrial arts, music, physical training and nursing, and health. In many 
of the courses the instruction is the same as that given in the regular classes of the 


school of practical arts. In other cases, special classes are organized to meet the 
needs of those desiring instruction in practical arts for use in the home. 

A large number of other courses in varied subjects is given late in the afternoon and 
on Saturday, which repeat those in liberal studies offered in the colleges of the uni- 
versity. These are given in the same manner and often by the same instructors as 
the regular courses. In most instances university credit is granted. 

Numerous courses are given at various centers. These are either regular courses of 
collegiate grade or short lecture courses without academic credit. 

Lecture-study courses in certain subjects, forming 15 or 30 lectures alternating with 
quiz or conference hours, are given at Morningside Heights and at centers when 

Centers for the study of choral music are maintained at Morningside Heights and 
Brooklyn, and choral concerts are given during the year. The department of exten- 
sion teaching also maintains the institute of arts and sciences. 

Institute of arts and sciences. The institute of arts and sciences is the nonacademic 
division of the department of extension teaching. The aim of the institute is to pro- 
vide a popular late afternoon and evening program consisting of general lectures and 
events of a cultural nature. 

The program is planned for busy men and women. The scope includes lectures, 

given singly or in series of six, on history, literature, art, music, household arts, science, 

and on current economic and social problems; it comprises also illustrated travel 

lectures, dramatic recitals, and vocal and instrumental as well as chamber music 


The program is subscribed for as a whole. The annual dues are $10, payable in 
advance, with an enrollment fee of $5, payable only once, provided the enrollment 
does not lapse. 


General information. Literature is lent by the university. Study outlines on sub- 
jects of general interest. 

Instruction by lectures. Lectures for clubs, institutes, etc., on general or technical 
subjects. Popular lectures and lectures for special occasions. 

Correspondence courses. Credit toward graduation is given for some of the courses. 
Several are offered for the benefit of women's clubs. 

Debate and declamation. Bulletins are issued on a number of subjects for debate. 
Material is sent from the university library. The bureau conducts a high-school de- 
bating union. 

County economic and social suryevs. Bulletins containing results are issued by the 
extension division. 

Municipal reference aids. The bureau studies municipal legislative problems and 
furnishes material bearing on them. 

Educational assistance. The school of education acts as a clearing house for teachers 
and principals. 

Instruction in road engineering. The university holds an annual road institute at 
the university campus, the institute consisting of a week's session of lectures, discus- 
sions, exhibits, and demonstrations. The bureau issues annual bulletins and circulars. 

War information series. A list of leaflets and publications is given in the university 


The university has conducted some extension work in medical instruction. 

During 1918-19 the war information series of bulletins was supplemented by war 
information leaflets dealing with reconstruction problems. 

The extension division has direct cooperation with the Federation of Women's 
Clubs, supplies club outlines, and gives other assistance. 


The division conducts package library service on current public questions. It pro- 
vides also a motion picture film service and aids to community drama. 



Correspondence study. Courses are given in college and vocational subjects under 
the direction of the university faculty. Credit toward graduation is allowed for one- 
fourth of the course. The catalogue contains a list of the courses offered. 

Lectures. Lectures are given in series, \ with syllabi, for study clubs; single lec- 
tures, for special groups and general audiences. 

Concerts and recitals. These are provided for music and culture clubs, and also for 
community lecture and entertainment course?. 

Extension courses for club study. The courses are organized for the purpose of en- 
couraging cultural and vocational education. 

Debating and public discussion. The bureau promotes and directs interest in the 
study and discussion of public questions ; selects questions for discussion and conducts 
the State high-school debating league and declamation contests. In addition it rec- 
ommends literary material and bibliographies for assistance in the preparation of papers 
and speeches. 

Visual instruction. The bureau lends lantern slides and exhibits. 


General information. General information is offered concerning municipal affairs 
and educational matters. Suggestive aid for individuals, school boards, commercial 
clubs, civic and economic betterment associations. 

News service. Service is given covering university activities and the general op- 
portunities of education. 

Conferences and community institutes. These are held for public information upon 
vocational, educational, and social welfare matters. 

Investigation and research. Studies in economics; investigations of social and munici- 
pal conditions. 

Library assistance. Books, pamphlets, magazines, and clippings lent. The appli- 
cant provides postage. 

The extension division was reorganized in 1919. 


Department of public information and welfare. The department furnishes informa- 
tion from the university's accumulation of material on all subjects pertaining to 
public welfare. The work of the department is extended through the following 

Municipal reference bureau. The bureau gathers and distributes information con- 
cerning water, light, paving, drainage, sanitation, fire protection, parks, etc. To- 
gether with the bureau of information of the Oklahoma Municipal League it issues 
a quarterly bulletin, "Oklahoma Municipalities." 

Commercial reference bureau. The bureau gathers and disseminates information 
pertaining to business, commerce, manufacturing, markets, etc. 

Bureau of social center development. Aid is given in bringing about harmony and 
cooperation in communities, and also in rendering democracy more efficient. 

Public discussion and club service. The bureau promotes and assists debating 
through bulletins on important subjects. The bulletins give complete, impartial, 
and authoritative information on both sides of a question. More than 170,000 have 


been issued. Under current-events study, topics are selected for school classes, 
men's and women's clubs. Special bulletins are issued. 

High-school debating. Bulletins, with briefs, bibliographies, and other informa- 
tion, are furnished to high-school debating classes. The bureau conducts a State 
high-school debating league. 

Traveling libraries. Thirty-five rural and fifteen municipal traveling libraries in 


Correspondence study. More than 700 courses are offered by the divison. These 
may be used extensively to complete the university course. 

Extension classes. These are intended particularly for teachers in various parts of 
the State. Syllabi and outlines are furnished. 

Extension lectures. Forty-five lecturers from the faculty are available, besides 
various musical organizations. Entertainments are provided for lyceum courses. 
The lectures and entertainments are given free, except for traveling expenses. 

Community music bureau. The department keeps musical instructors in the field 
who teach for two weeks at a place and endeavor to organize the musical resources. 
It has published a collection of about 60 songs, "Oklahoma Community Songs," 
about 6,000 copies. 

Department of visual instruction. The department offers, especially to rural com- 
munities, printed illustrated lectures on a variety of subjects. Motion pictures cir- 

Conferences. Conferences have been held at the university on taxation, rural 
problems, and good roads. 

Merchants ' short courses have been held by the division ; also State contests in music, 
ex tempore speaking, and declamation. The department of general information and 
welfare conducts community institutes and publishes informational bulletins on 
community welfare. 



Correspondence study. 

Extension classes. Intensive study classes are offered, extensive or general in- 
struction classes (conducted largely by lectures), and also special classes. 

Oregon Teachers ' Reading Circle. Certificates are offered upon completion of courses. 


Lectures. Faculty members give a large number of lectures with no extra com- 

Visual instruction. Slides, films, exhibits, mineral sets, and microscopic slides. 
General university exhibits. 

Community music and drama. Direction and assistance is given in the presenta- 
tion of high-school plays and in high-school music. A play-writing contest is con- 

Public discussion and club service. The bureau lends package libraries and con- 
ducts a high-school debating league. Women's clubs and other groups are supplied 
with study outlines, reference books, and personal instruction. 

Red Cross service. Lectures, exhibits, bulletins, institutes, service in civilian 

Child welfare. The Oregon Child Welfare Commission, composed of five members 
of the university faculty, has arranged for a child welfare survey of the State. The 
commission has organized a psychopathic clinic which examines children free of 
charge and suggests lines of correctional treatment. 


Public information. The extension division is the distributing agency for such 
material as the university is able to gather and to put into usable form for the citi- 
zens of the State. Inquiries are answered by the division staff and university 



General education section. Publications. Appointment bureau; the bureau con- 
ducts student employment, teacher appointment, and general alumni appointment. 
General information Service. Educational meetings and conventions. Educational 

Extra-mural instruction department. Formal instruction. Class instruction is coh- 
ducted by the regular university faculty. Courses for credit include a wide range 
of standardized university courses of the same grade as those offered on the campus. 

Correspondence instruction. Formerly the extension division utilized those 
resources available from the University of Chicago. The division has assumed exclu- 
sive control and administration of this work and offers courses of its own. 

Lectures. The regular staff of the university is used by this bureau. Single lec- 
tures, with a wide range of subjects, are offered. No university credit is given. 

Community center. The bureau does work in Americanization, conducts school 
and social surveys, investigations, research, and gives expert advice on community 

Public service department. Informal instruction. Package Library Bureau. The 
bureau furnishes briefs, bibliographies, and club study programs. In addition to the 
stimulation of debates and literary activities in high schools, the bureau conducts a 
large debate and literary contest for high-school students on the university campus. 

Visual Bureau. The bureau lends lantern slides owned by the university and 
educational motion picture films contributed by industrial concerns or furnished by 
the United States Bureau of Education. 

School relations. The bureau has charge of high-school visitation, interscholastic 
contests, and student welfare. 

Business and commercial development. Business surveys; busine'ss short courses; 
cooperative work with commercial clubs. 


Correspondence courses. The courses are based on textbooks, special reports, and 
special references furnished by the university library, and on special correspondence 
by the professor giving the course. A final written examination is given. 

Extension classes. The work is conducted by regular members of the faculty who 
meet extra-mural classes on Friday evenings and Saturdays in various parts of the 
State. Classes are held every four weeks and written work is done in the interim. 
Courses offered in education, sociology, economics, fine arts, and languages. 

Department of visual instruction. Slides, films, and charts are circulated in the 



Correspondence instruction. Courses are given for university credit, entrance credit, 
preparation for teachers' examination. Courses cpver many subjects, including busi- 
ness and vocational work. Courses in law are given without credit. 

Group study courses. These are offered for women's clubs, teachers, business men, 
labor unions, mothers' clubs, literary societies, etc. Instruction is given through the 
medium of an outlined course, the instructor keeping in touch through correspondence 


and personal visits. A reference library is available. The courses are a combination 
of the correspondence and lecture plan. 

Extension classes. Classes not provided for in the regular university curriculum 
are conducted either by university instructors or other competent persons. 


Bureau of home welfare. Lecturers and demonstrators attend fairs and county 
educational meetings. "One-week schools" are held for women's organizations. 
Bulletins are published. 

Division of information. The division furnishes instruction and entertainment by 
exhibits, slides, films, music, etc. It also circulates package libraries and answers 
requests for information. 

Public lectures and publicity. Information is given on questions of the day, and on 
phases of literature, science, and art. 

School interests. A university interscholastic league has been organized. The 
bureau conducts contests in debate, declamation, spelling, vocational work, and 
athletics. It strives to promote the school as a community center, particularly in 
rural districts. It conducts county educational campaigns. The university provides 
two rural specialists for educational campaigns in rural districts. 


Bureau of instruction. Extension classes and correspondence study. Courses in 
business, trades, and industries, mining, and special courses for teachers and for 
mothers. Classes are formed upon the application of 10 people for the same work. 

Bureau of public service. Community and health institutes are conducted by the 
bureau. Child welfare work is supervised. Cooperative work is done with the 
State and National Government in baby-saving campaigns. The general work of the 
bureau covers water supply, sanitation, recreation, playgrounds, public improvements, 
lighting systems, street pavements, libraries, social conditions and needs, public 

Visual instruction. Slides and films circulated in the State. 

General information service. The bureau invites inquiries upon any subject about 
which it may be supposed to possess information . It disseminates i nf ormation through 
bulletins and the press. It conducts a high school debating league. 

Lectures and entertainments. The bureau acts as' an exchange for lecturers and artists. 
A list of the lectures available is published in the extension announcement. 

Teachers' service. With the cooperation of the State board of education and the 
Utah Educational Association, 'the extension division publishes ''The Utah Edu- 
cational Review." 

Americanization and educational work. Special lectures, institutes, training of 
teachers, vocational instruction. 


Instruction by lectures. Debate and public discussion. Package libraries. Vir- 
ginia high school quarterly. Bureau of publication. Bureau of appointment. War 
extension service. 

State Geological Survey and State Forestry department. These two departments 
devote practically all their time to extension work. 

Moonlight schools, medical dispensaries, and rural life conferences are carried 
on by the Y. M. C. A. extension service. The conference is in connection with the 
summer school, and is held for one week. The proceedings are published and widely 




Correspondence study in academic and noncredit courses. 

Extension classes are held iii seven different cities. Evening classes are held at 
the university. 


The bureau of lectures offers medical lectures and clinics. Lectures are offered in 
series, and in courses. 

Bureau of debate and discussion. The bureau circulates package libraries, bibli- 
ographies, etc. It also issues debating bulletins, containing outlines of subjects of 

Bureau of municipal and legislative research. The bureau collects statutes, ordi- 
nances, charters, and other documents. The chief of the bureau is secretary and treas- 
urer of the League of Washington Municipalities which issues a bulletin entitled 
' ' Washington Municipalities . ' ' 

Bureau of civic development. The bureau extends advice to centers and civic clubs, 
and gives general service to community centers. 

State tax conference. Annual newspaper institutes. School surveys. Mineral 
collections. Educational surveys. General information. Publications. Journals, 
bulletins, circulars of information, etc. 


Some extension work not administered by the extension division is as follows: 
Psychological clinics; laboratory examination of children. The college of mines 
issues bulletins, holds a three months' training session for miners, and does laboratory 


Department of correspondence study. Instruction is given by correspondence and in 
class groups. A list of the courses offered is given in the extension announcement. 

Department of instruction by lectures. University lectures are given singly and in 
series. In addition are offered concert recitals and reading programs. Institutes, 
conventions, commencements, etc., are provided for. 

Department of debating and public discussion. Bulletins, with facts, arguments, and 
selections of bibliographical character, are available on a number of questions. Pack- 
age libraries, newspaper clippings, documents, publications. Study outlines and 
programs for clubs. Assistance in the writing of essays, themes, and orations. 

Department of general information and ivelfare. This department constitutes a clear- 
ing house through which inquiries on general matters are given attention. Various 
methods of disseminating information are utilized, including publication of nontech- 
nical reports and the employment of experts for welfare work in local communities. 

Other activities supervised or conducted by this department are community insti- 
tutes, social service institutes, special conferences, vocational institutes, exhibits, 
community center promotion, service to civic and commercial clubs. 

Bureau of municipal reference. The bureau collects and furnishes technical infor- 
mation on all subjects of organization and administration and other problems. 

Municipal and sanitary engineering service.- Assistance is given communities in the 
solution of problems of municipal and sanitary engineering. 

Bureau of community music and drama. The bureau offers the service of a leader 
for the organization of community choruses, dramatic clubs, lectures, etc. It prepares 
.school and community programs, organizes literary and musical contests, lends phono- 
graph records, and gives other assistance. 


Tealth instruction bureau. The bureau conducts a news health service, cooperates 
with State boards in health propaganda, assists in training public health nurses, 
publishes nontechnical bulletins on health subjects. 

Bureau of visual instruction. The bureau makes studies of materials and methods 
of illustrative teaching. It collects, produces, and distributes lantern slides, motion 
pictures, and other materials for use by schools and organizations. 

Slides and films are lent in circuits, especially among schools. In addition, service 
is given to schools and civic organizations not in circuits. During the year 1917-18 
nearly 42,000 lantern slides on more than 250 subjects and 510,000 feet of motion- 
picture film on 175 subjects were available to borrowers. Seven circuits were estab- 
lished for 21 weeks in succession. 

In 1918-19 the available stock of slides was greatly increased and the number of films 
made available for lending was nearly doubled. The bureau secured and put in cir- 
culation many slides and films on war emergency, patriotism, Red Cross, food conser- 
vation, and other timely subjects. The number of borrowers increased greatly over 
the period 1914-1916. In the biennium of 1916-1918 there was a growth of over 70 per 
cent in the number of slides sent out and nearly 250 per cent in the number of films 

Bureau of postgraduate medical instruction. Six-day courses of instruction are given 
to physicians by .lecture and clinic. Courses were held in nine different cities in 


The division conducts a press service, which sends a weekly bulletin to 400 Wisconsin 

The university has established a chair of Americanization, and the extension 
division cooperates with the professor in charge of the work. 

Much of the local work is administered through six districts with resident staff 
officers in the following cities: Milwaukee, Oshkosh, La Crosse, Superior, Wausau, 
and Eau Claire. 


Division of correspondence study. Credit courses are given under limited conditions. 
Noncredit courses are also offered. Courses are given in accounting, agriculture, 
education, engineering, home economics, etc. 

Traveling libraries. Traveling libraries are lent to individuals and organizations. 
They consist of 20 or more books of fiction, history, science, travel, etc. 

Lecture courses and university centers. Lecture courses are arranged free except for 
expenses. Courses are offered in literature, education, political science, etc. Com- 
binations of class, correspondence, and club study are held in different centers of the 
State. The centers are under the direction of local leaders, and the work is supervised 
by university professors. 

General information. Inquiries received through the mail on special and general 
subjects are answered through the division by specialists in the various university 


Several agricultural colleges are developing general extension 
service in addition to agricultural extension. This is the case in 
Mississippi, Maryland, and Maine, where general extension has not 
been established heretofore. In Washington the State college at 
Pullman has obtained legislative appropriation for general extension. 
Doubtless the agricultural college will divide the field of work with 
the University of Washington. 

The Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College maintains, 
besides the cooperative extension division, a <l service bureau," or 
"extramural division of the college work." 

The service bureau is a branch of the Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege which seeks to expand into the broadest possible field the varied activities of 
the institution. To this end the bureau endeavors to act (1) as a clearing house to 
make available for the whole State the valuable information accumulated by the 
agencies of investigation and research which are parts of the college; (2) to extend 
through the department of correspondence study the exact knowledge imparted by 
the department of collegiate instruction; (3) to offer through the package libraries 
to schools, clubs, and other organizations, and interested individuals, the resources 
of compact and accurate libraries on a host of present-day topics of the moment; (4) 
to collect and to lend, through the department of visual instruction, both slides and 
films of an educational nature; (5) to supervise the agricultural work and the publicity 
department. 1 

The department of correspondence study offers courses in agricultural engineering, 
astronomy, chemistry, civics, dairy husbandry, education. English, home economics, 
poultry husbandry, public discourse, business law, etc. 

The general information service disseminates information both through newspapers 
and by correspondence. "It invites requests for any kind of material which has 
relation to the economic, social, intellectual, or religious life of the people." 

Visual instruction. The department lends slide sets on subjects in agriculture, 
"industry, patriotism, and general culture," and reels of motion pictures on similar 

The package library department lends packages on over 300 subjects "of interest to 
students of educational or civic topics." 

1 Excerpt from catalogue of Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College, 1918. 


The following discussion is based upon replies to a questionnaire 
addressed to the directors of 29 leading extension divisions in the 
country. Replies were received from 24 institutions. They are the 
extension divisions of the State Universities of Arizona, Arkansas, Cal- 
ifornia, Colorado, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Mis- 
souri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, 
Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin, the University of Pittsburgh, 
Columbia University, Ohio University, the State Teachers' Colleges of 
Colorado and Iowa, and the Massachusetts Board of Education. 

The information contained in the replies sliows a very considerable 
variety of organization and administrative procedure, certain lead- 
ing tendencies, and many local peculiarities. 


The position most commonly occupied by the extension division is one coordinate 
with the schools or colleges of the university. This is true in Kansas, Missouri, 
Oregon, Indiana, Texas, Pittsburgh, Utah, and Wisconsin. The extension division 
of Wisconsin is ranked as a coordinate college, with a dean and faculty. In Minne- 
sota it occupies a position between a department and a school, in Columbia and Col- 
orado one similar to a school; in Michigan it is coordinate with the departments and 
schools. It is on the same level as a department in Arizona, Iowa Teachers' College, 
and Ohio University. It represents the extension activities of the various depart- 
ments and schools in Washington, Iowa, and North Carolina. It cooperates with the 
departments in California. 

The management of the extension division is usually independent 
of the faculty, though a partial exception is regularly made in the case 
of regulations pertaining to extension work done for credit. The 
management is subject to a committee of the faculty for the deter- 
mination or recommendation of policies in Washington, Missouri, 
Colorado Teachers' College, California, and Arizona, and cooperates 
with an advisory committee in North Carolina. In Colorado it is 
independent, but subject to an advisory committee of the senate in 
such matters as credits, standards, and general interests. 

The director of extension work, together with the associate directors and heads 
of bureaus, are generally ranked as members of the faculty, even when they do not 
teach in the university. In some cases they are also listed separately (Minnesota, 

1 This chapter is condensed from the mimeograph bulletin on the same subject, prepared by Dr. J. J. 
Rchlicher, and issued by the Division of Educational Extension, March, 1919. A few minor changes have 
been made and additions incorporated. For further treatment of certain phases of organization, see " Class 
Extension Work in the Universities and Colleges of the V. S.," by A. J. Klein, Bui. 62, 1919, U. S. Bureau 
of Education. 

153448 20 7 97 


Colorado, Oregon, California, Pittsburgh, Iowa, Oklahoma, Utah, Iowa Teachers' 
College, Colorado Teachers' College). In Indiana they are so listed when they do 
not do residence work. In Arkansas and Utah the director is ranked only as an 
administrative officer. The same is true of all the administrative officers of the 
extension division in North Carolina. 

In Colorado the extension work of the western slope is carried on jointly by the 
State University, the State Teachers' College, and the State Normal School, under a 
supervisor appointed by an extension board. The supervisor is supported by the 
three institutions and has the rank of assistant professor on the faculty of each. 

When the administrative officers of extension work and those giving their whole 
time to extension teaching are included as members of the faculty, the director is 
usually ranked as a professor, and the heads of bureaus as assistant professors, in- 
structors, etc. In one case, where the extension work is subject to a committee of 
the faculty, the director is an associate professor. In two institutions, Wisconsin 
and Pittsburgh, the director ranks as dean. In one other there is some prospect of 
this rank for the director, and that of professor for the heads of bureaus. The rank 
of administrative officers seems to be determined by the salary paid them. Hence 
the advent of deans of extension work will be more than a change of titles for the 
director and his staff. 

Appointment. Appointment of the director and other administrative members 
of the extension staff is, as a rule, made in the usual way by the president of the 
university and the board of trustees or regents, other influences being unofficial and 
advisory. The following peculiarities and modifications are found. In California 
all appointments are recommended to the president by a committee of the university 
senate, called the University Extension Administrative Board. In Colorado 
the director is appointed by the president, and all other appointments are made on 
the director's recommendation. In Columbia the salaries of the assistants to the 
director are determined by him with the approval of the president. In Michigan 
the appointments are made by the board of regents. In Minnesota the director and 
assistant director are appointed by the president. In North Carolina the director 
is appointed by the president, and the assistants by the president and director. In 
Washington the heads of bureaus are appointed through joint recommendation. In 
Utah important appointments are submitted by the president to the dean's council. 
In Massachusetts the administrative officers of extension are appointed by the governor. 

In the appointment of instructors for extension work there is some variety of 
practice. The departments of the university are usually consulted and usually 
must approve instructors and courses for which credit is to be given, but the selection 
of instructors and courses, as a rule, is made by the extension division. In indi- 
vidual instances they are nominated or recommended by the departments con- 
cerned, or all instructors to be appointed must be approved by them, or the depart- 
ments select them with the approval of the director or upon suggestions by him as 
to the kind of instructor wanted. A distinction is sometimes made between 
instructors doing correspondence work and others, but the usual distinction depends 
on whether they are to offer credit courses, and on whether they are regular members 
of the faculty giving part time to the extension work or extension instructors giving 
all their time. Cases occur where the departments and faculty have no control 
over instructors whatever, even when credit is to be given for their work, but this 
js exceptional. Quite as exceptional are the cases where the departments have 
full control of the appointment of instructors. This situation is, however, scarcely 
a normal one, and seems to be found where extension work has in the past been 
done by individual members of the faculty, and a full-fledged extension division 
has not yet been formed. 


Extension work done outside the division. In 14 of the 24 institutions no extension 

work, outside of that in agriculture, is done except under the direction of the general 

extension division. In a few even agricultural work is under its management. 

In nine States more or less other extension work is done outside of it, as follows: 

University of Arizona Engineering and mining, the former being carried on by the 
college of engineering; the latter, under a separate State appropriation, by the 
State bureau of mines. 

University of Colorado Educational surveys. 

University of California Some lectures and institute work. 

Colorado State Teachers' College Department of psychology cooperates with juve- 
nile court, department of sociology with 'the county court, department of educa- 
tion with the churches, etc. 

Indiana University Vocational teacher- training courses in the cities; some follow-up 
work for patients discharged from the hospital of the school of medicine. 

University of Iowa The clinical psychologist and State epidemiologist do extension 
work independently, the latter being employed jointly by the extension division 
and the State board of health. 

University of Kansas The school of education controls the work of its school-service 
bureau; members of the faculty visit teachers' institutes independently of the ex- 
tension division. 

University of Oklahoma The school of education does its extension work independ- 
ently. Two heads of departments act as secretaries, respectively, of the State 
Municipal League and the State Electric Light and Power Association. 

University of Texas The bureau of municipal research and the bureau of economic 
geology, which are units in operation, act independently of the extension division. 

The arrangements just mentioned for extension activities outside of the extension 
division are by most directors considered satisfactory. There is very little evidence 
of friction, and the only serious objections made are on the ground of duplication of 
machinery and waste of effort. One director, whose division controls all the exten- 
sion work of his institution, would encourage the departments to go ahead on their 
own initiative when there is no spirit of antagonism.' 


In the subdivision of extension activities into what are usually 
called departments or bureaus there is the greatest diversity. Ari- 
zona has 2 such subdivisions, Arkansas 5, California 7, Colorado 9, 
Colorado State Teachers' College 5, Columbia 4, Indiana 8, Iowa 7, 
Iowa State Teachers' College 3, Kansas 4, Massachusetts Board of 
Education 3, Michigan 12, Minnesota 7, North Carolina 10, Okla- 
homa 5, Oregon 5, Pittsburgh 8, South Dakota 8, Texas 5, Utah 10, 
Washington 13, Wisconsin 4. Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Pitts- 
burgh, and Utah group their activities under two main heads instruc- 
tion and public service. To these the name " bureau" is sometimes 
affixed also. 

In a few cases the management of the different bureaus is practically independent, 
but as a rule the director exercises more or less complete supervision or control. New 
policies are determined in about half the divisions by consultation between the di- 
rector and the individual head of the bureau concerned. The rest are about equally 
divided between those where a common consultation of all members of the staff is 
held and those where both individual and common consultation are found. When a 
distinction is made, general policies are determined by the latter, details by the former 


method. In California general policies are determined by the director and the ad- 
ministrative extension board of the university senate. 

Local centers. Local centers, with more or less definite administrative management 
of their own, are maintained by some of the extension divisions. 

California has four local centers at Los Angeles, Stockton, San Diego, and Fresno, 
with representatives of the extension division in charge. 

The joint arrangement between the University of Colorado, Colorado State Teachers' 
College, and Colorado State Normal School has already been mentioned, by which 
through a committee representing the three schools the extension work of the western 
slope is put under the direction of a superintendent, who devotes his whole time to it. 
The committee, which consists of the director of extension at the university and the 
presidents of the other two institutions, selects the superintendent, outlines his duties. 
and has referred to it monthly reports of his work for its approval. 

The director of extension at Columbia generally appoints some representative who 
acts as secretary for the local interests, merely looking after the registration and 
banking of the tuition fees under the- direction of the bursar of the university. 

In the two centers of the Indiana division the local officer in charge 
stands in the same relation to the director as the members of the 
main staff at the university. The chief duties of the local manage- 
ment are to arrange and conduct classes in the vicinity of the center. 

In Kansas a local committee has charge, including the director, one member ap- 
pointed by him, and others elected by the local center. It arranges and conducts 
the program of entertainment and education for one year and cooperates with the 
extension division in securing the greatest possible use of the services of the university 
for the community. The membership of the local center is composed of those who 
pay the membership fee, which entitles them to all programs for the year. They 
elect a president and act through committees for the various kinds of extension serv- 
ice to be obtained, lectures, musical recitals, social welfare, community surveys, etc. 
A local secretary, appointed by the director, conducts the correspondence, takes 
charge of slides and films, follows up the work of the committee and the program, and 
keeps things moving and active generally. 

The Massachusetts division has one local center, at Springfield, whose manager is 
responsible to the agent in charge of class instruction, and attends to publicity and the 
organization of classes. 

The North Carolina local centers are in charge of a separate mem- 
ber of the staff, who cooperates with a local committee. 

The University of Oregon has a local center at Portland, with a 
director and secretary. 

South Dakota is planning the appointment of paid local secreta- 
ries, who are to keep the class fully advised of matters concerning it, 
make local arrangements, and keep the extension idea prominently 
before the public. 

The extension division of Wisconsin has six local districts, with headquarters at 
Milwaukee, Oshkosh, La Crosse, Superior, Wausau, and Eau Claire. Each has a 
district representative at its head, and one or more organizers, in addition to clerks 
and stenographers. Each has also one or more local instructors in engineering and in 
other lines much in demand. The chief of the bureau of health instruction has his 
headquarters at Milwaukee. The district representatives are chosen by the dean 
of extension, as are also the organisers, after consultation with the district represent- 
atives. The latter are responsible to the dean for the staff and work of their districts 


Local instructors work under the direction of the home office at the university. The 
duties of the local staff are to survey the educational needs of committees and serve 
them through the various types of extension service. The district representatives 
are called into conference at the university once or twice a year, and at other times 
individually when necessary. They hold weekly conferences with their men for 
plans and reports on their work. Monthly reports are made by district represent- 
atives and instructors, and daily reports by the organisers. 


The great bulk of extension instruction and lectures is given by regular members 
of the faculties. The following extension divisions report instructors 1 giving full 
time to extension work: Kansas 3, Minnesota 2, Oregon 6, California 4, Colorado 3, 
Columbia 195, Indiana 4, Massachusetts Board of Education 14, Pittsburgh 3, Iowa 7, 
Michigan 1, Colorado State Teachers' College 1, Iowa State Teachers' College 30 
(summer), Ohio University 3, Utah 1, Wisconsin 60. Only a few institutions have 
lecturers devoting all their time to extension work. Indiana has 5, Oklahoma 1, 
Wisconsin 25. The members of the regular faculty devoting part time to extension 
instruction range from 2 to 107 (Columbia); of lecturers, from 2 to 115 (Michigan). 
The average number of part-time instructors per institution is 29, of part-time lec- 
turers 24. 

Instructors and lecturers are employed from outside the faculty 
and extension staff by nearly all the divisions. The following classes 
of such additional help are mentioned : Instructors at distant points, 
business and professional men, lawyers, doctors, lecturers in popular 
courses, travelers, ins true tors from the public schools, instructors 
for special work (vocational and commercial, e. g., wireless teleg- 
raphy), instructors for scout masters and camp-fire training camps, 
specialists in Americanization, community organization, municipal 
government and health subjects, superintendents of mines and 
factories, speakers at institutes and conferences. 

Xuper vision. The work of instruction thus done is sometimes closely supervised 
by the departments at the university under which it falls, through examination 
questions, outlines of the courses, and by other means. In Columbia each department 
has an extension committee for this purpose. In California, department secretaries 
cooperate with the assistant director in charge of instruction. Usually, however, 
the supervision is exercised through visits by the extension director or some member 
of the staff representing him. In two cases the school of education has a special part 
in this, and in one case the services of the State high-school inspector are thus em- 
ployed . 

Methods of determining the success of instruction or lecture work are various. In 
the order of frequency they are: Personal visits, usually by the director, confidential 
reports by reliable persons on the ground, conferences with superintendents, results 
as seen by subsequent requests for courses, careful analysis of the results of instruction 
by a tabulation of such items as attendance, reasons for absence, character of exam- 
ination papers. The answers to questionnaires give evidence that it is a difficult 
problem, and usually several of the methods named are employed. It might be said 
that the tendency is toward accurate determination of results by such methods as the 
last one mentioned. At least, we find this method adopted by strong divisions whose 
finances permit them to do so. 

> These figures do not include all administrators who have the rank of instructor but do no teaching. 


Supervision of correspondence work by personal visits of instructors is found only 
in 6 out of 18 cases, and in several of these but little is done in this line, though it is 
considered desirable by several. Since correspondence work is usually conducted 
by regular members of the faculty, and is an individual matter so far as the student 
is concerned, correspondence and correction of his work is relied upon to check his 
work. The desirability of 'personal contact seems to be attested by the fact that 
several institutions which do a good deal of correspondence work make provision for 
it. The establishment of a number of local centers for extension work, with resident 
instructors, as we find in Wisconsin, makes this method of supervision relatively 
easy. As a new venture in this field should be mentioned the Helps for Community 
and Home Study Department just being established by Columbia. 

Group study. Group or class study, in which the instructor is not present at every 
meeting of the class, but periodically, is maintained by 9 out of 21 divisions replying. 
The success is reported as good by 4, as fair or as depending on circumstances, like 
local leadership, by 3, and as- unsatisfactory by 2. 

Help from outside the university and extension staff is secured when needed by 
most extension divisions. The institutions report the following purposes for which 
they secure such help: Instruction II, 1 lectures 7, special and peculiar fields 3, insti- 
tutes and conferences 6, correspondence work 2, grading correspondence papers 1, 
surveys and investigations 1, debating league 1, recreation camps 1, good roads and 
country life 1, community and child welfare 3, woman's clubs 1, expert informational 
work among teachers 1, promotion 2. Trained professional men and experts, the 
faculties of other colleges, former members of the university faculty, school superin- 
tendents and teachers, and National, State, and municipal officials are among the 
classes drawn upon for this purpose. 


Fixed relations of cooperation are established by more than three-fourths of the 
extension divisions with a great variety of institutions, agencies, and organizations 
for business, charitable, general welfare, and general educational purposes. 
A large share of their effective work in these directions is done by extension divisions 
in this way, since it enables them to benefit by the accumulated experience, organ- 
ization, and expert assistance of these bodies. Among them are the State and local 
chambers of commerce, rotary clubs, art clubs, the Federation of Women's Clubs, 
the Ked Cross, hospitals, boards of education, the State board of health, the State 
Library Commission, colleges, universities and high schools, the States Relations 
Service, the State board for vocational education, various industrial organizations, 
the Anti-Tuberculosis Association, the State Conference of Charities and Corrections, 
the Young Men's Christian Association and Young Women's Christian Association, 
the churches, the American Institute of Banking, the State League of Municipalities, 
the granges, the railroads, advertising clubs, and local or State welfare and business 
organizations of various kinds. 

These forms of cooperation are, with very few exceptions, reported as yielding good 
results, and even a qualified statement on this point is rare. 

Cooperation with other extension divisions is carried on to a certain extent and in 
certain lines by 17 of the institutions. The remaining 7 either have not established 
cooperation with other extension divisions or did not answer the question. The 
close cooperation of the extension division of Arkansas with the States Relations 
Service deserves special mention. In the cooperation between the State institu- 
tions of Colorado expenses are shared and efforts pooled to provide the west slope 
with extension work. Slides, films, and to a limited extent lectures, are exchanged 
by Indiana, and there is reciprocation also in the exchange of mailing lists. The 
relations between the extension divisions of the State institutions of Iowa are deter- 

i These figures should be larger, for most reports list only one or two purposes as examples. 


mined by the extension council of the State board of education. In Kansas the 
State Agricultural College supplies the extension division of the university with 
demonstrators and lecturers in home economics for community institute programs, 
their local expenses being paid by the university extension division. The coopera- 
tion between Minnesota, North Dakota, and Wisconsin is in securing and routing 
lyceum talent. Oklahoma exchanged publications and package library material 
and has cooperation in correspondence study. The latter is found in a limited degree 
also in Oregon and in Colorado, which also exchange slides to a limited extent. 
Pittsburgh has used the correspondence-study division of the University of Chicago 
for its work in this line. It is a common practice to refer requests from outside the 
State to the extension division in the State where the correspondent resides. 


The appropriations for extension work are as a rule made either directly by the 
legislature or by the board of regents of the university, upon an estimate submitted 
by the director and approved by the president. The two methods of providing funds 
are about equally common. In one institution the president alone makes the as- 
signment for the extension division. 

Fees are charged by all of the 24 divisions reporting except two. They are regu- 
larly charged for correspondence work, and nearly always for class instruction also. 
In several cases a fee is charged only for credit courses. One division which has 
until now not charged fees for class instruction will do so hereafter. In the case of 
lectures the fee most commonly goes directly to the lecturer, together with the ex- 
penses of the trip. In isolated cases no charge is made for lectures, except the 
expenses of the lecturer. Fees are also charged in some cases for community 
institutes, short courses, service to women's clubs, current-topics study, first-aid 
instruction, industrial classes, and the use of slides and films. 

The fees are sometimes paid into the extension fund; sometimes, 
and with about the same frequency, into the general university 
fund; or, in Massachusetts, into the State treasury. In the former 
case sometimes a fixed division is made between the divisions and 
the instructor, 50-50 hi one, 20-80 in another, and 10-90 for the 
regular faculty and 30-70 for local instructors in a third. In the last- 
named case 20 per cent goes to the local administration for the 
expense of supervision. When the fees are paid into the university 
fund, this is in several instances done as a mere form, since they are 
reappropriated to the division or subject to its call for certain pay- 
ments in instruction. 

Methods of payment. The payment to instructors is made accord- 
ing to several different methods. Sometimes regular members of 
the faculty receive no extra compensation for extension work; 
sometimes they are paid according to a scale, in which their regular 
salaries, the nature of the course or lecture and the attendance at 
the lecture or class, as well as the frequency of its meetings, may be 
factors. Local or outside instructors are sometimes paid according 
to the fees received from their work, even when regular instructors 
are not thus paid, but more commonly they are engaged for a specific 
purpose and paid a sum agreed upon. Two institutions pay the 
fees up to a certain amount, one of them with a certain guaranty 


in addition. Another makes the pay depend on fees received for 
class work within certain limits of attendance. Assistance for 
grading and correcting correspondence-study papers is, at least in 
some cases, paid by the lesson or assignment. 

Other kinds of income received by the extension divisions are of 
such a varied character that they are difficult to estimate. Prac- 
tically all the divisions receive considerable local help, which if 
counted as actual income would bulk large. Equally difficult is it 
to determine how much service the extension work receives from the 
faculty members and from the general administrative staff of the 
university. In some institutions, telephone, telegraph, and express 
charges are paid from the general university fund and not charged 
against tl^e extension budget. Divisions in some instances receive 
special appropriations from the State board of education, some 
obtain gifts of the cost of printing special bulletins, others receive 
financial assistance from industrial or commercial corporations for 
conducting work for employees or the community. 

Little effort is made to establish a fixed budget for the different 
bureaus of a division, the assignment of funds depending on the 
needs as they arise. In several very distinctly defined lines of 
work, like that of the institutes of arts and sciences at Columbia, 
and the summer extension work of the Iowa State Teachers' College, 
a fixed separation of funds is the established practice. 

The traveling expenses of instructors and lecturers and other agents are paid by 
the extension division in 7 States, by the community in 7, by the State in 6, by the 
university in 4. Communities do not, however, always pay these expenses, even 
in the States referred to, since there is usually an alternative. In some cases the 
administrative expenses are excepted and paid by the extension division or the 
State. In two cases the expenses are met out of the fees. 

In a similar manner, institutes or conferences are financed by the university in 5 
cases, by the extension divisions in 4, by the State in 2, by cooperation of the com- 
munity and the extension division in 3, by the community in 1, by one of the three 
methods in 3, by special appropriation in 2, by the State board of education in 1. 

Slides, films, and package libraries are furnished free, except for cost of transporta- 
tion, and in some cases for damage, in 9 States, in one of which it is provided that no 
admission fee be charged . In 2 additional States transportation one way only is charged . 


The following is a partially itemized budget for general extension 
as provided by act of the Florida legislature in 1919: 

SECTION 5. The sum of $50,000, or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby 
appropriated out of the general revenue fund to carry out the work herein authorized, 
for a period of two years and one month from June 1, 1919, to June 30, 1921, and shall 
be expended as follows: 

Salary of director one year . . $3. 000 

Salary of field agent do 3. 000 

Salary of office assistants, stenographers, filing clerks, and librarians. . .do 2. 700 


Extra pay for professors engaged in outside work, estimated for 352 days at 

$5 per day one year $1, 760 

Extra pay for 10 students assisting in work in office at $300 each do 3, 000 

Pay for lecturers and entertainers do 500 

Traveling expenses for field agent, estimated 150 days at $7 per day . .do 1, 050 

Traveling expenses for professors and students engaged in out-side work .do 1, 290 

Traveling expenses for lecturers and entertainers do 500 

Contingencies, telegrams, researches, advertising, and extra salaries . . .do. ... 1, 500 

[Appropriations for items listed above may be transferred from one to another as need 

may arise.] 

Subscription for periodicals : one year. . 500 

Printing do 1, 200 

Stamps do 1, 500 

Purchase of correspondence courses do 1, 000 

Purchase of slides and films do 2, 000 

Purchase of filing cases, writing machines, and other office furniture.. do 500 

Total , $25, 000 

For second year $25, 000 

For the two years $50, 000 


The following is a condensed statement of the place and function 
of an extension division in university policy. The propositions are 
taken from a preliminary draft of the by-laws proposed for a western 

SECTION 1. Fundamental considerations. The university is under obligations to 
serve, within its means, all the people of the State. 

The department of instruction is the unit of university activity, whether on or off 
the campus. 

A school of the university is an administrative device by which certain major inter- 
ests of the people may be more efficiently served. Departments that contribute to 
the activity of a school retain their integrity and independence as structural units 
of the university. 

Only stringent necessity should make it necessary for the board of regents to estab- 
lish more than one department covering the same field. 

SEC. 2. The field of the extension division. The extension division is coordinate with 
the other divisions called schools. It is the administrative device by which the 
university serves the -people of the State who can not come to the campus for instruc- 
tion, or who, if they come to the campus, take only such work, especially provided, as 
their regular vocational duties permit them to take. 

SEC. 3. The extension division and the departments. The departments of the university 
must do their teaching work beyond the campus through the extension division, and 
credit extension classes must be given with the general understanding of the depart- 
ments concerned. 

SEC. 4 . The extension division and schools . In such of its teaching work as is designed 
to count toward a university degree the extension division represents the schools, 
and such work must be given with the understanding of the schools concerned. 

SEC. 5. Independent organization authorized. The extension division may be au- 
thorized to undertake work independently of the departments or schools. 


SEC. 6. Classification of extension workers. Members of the extension staff, who give 
instruction in a recognized field of knowledge should be classified also with the staffs 
of the departments in question. 

Clerks and administrative officers should be classified only with the extension staff. 

SEC. 7. Classification of extension students. All students taking credit courses by 
extension should be classified as of the school in which their major work lies. They 
should, however, determine this classification themselves, on their application cards 
at the time of registration or on forms otherwise provided by the registrar. All exten- 
sion students not so fixing their classification in schools and all other extension students 
shall be classified merely as extension students. This section does not in any way 
prohibit the extension division from maintaining and publishing lists of all students 
doing extension work. 




Volume 1. 1915-16. 

No. 9. Part 1. Bureau of Correspondence Instruction. (General information.) 

No. 11. Bureau of Class Instruction. (Announcement of courses, 1915-16.) 

No. 14. Bureau of Public Discussion. (Constitution and rules and regulations of 
the Interscholastic Public Speaking League of California.) 

No. 15. University extension service for teachers. 
Volume 2. 1916-17. 

No. 8. Correspondence courses in gasoline automobiles, advanced shop mathe- 
matics, etc. 

No. 16. Compulsory health insurance. 

No. 19. Military service. 

No. 21. Single house legislature. 

No. 23. Some suggestions regarding possibilities of service in view of the war. 
Volumes. 1917-18. 

No. 1. Bureau of Class Instruction. (Announcements of courses 1917-18.) 

No. 2. The newsprint situation. 

No. 3. League to enforce peace. 

No. 4. Schedule of classes (August). 

No. 5. Preliminary announcement for Southern California. 

No. 6. Preparing the way for peace. (Stereopticon lecture outline.) 

No. 7. Steps toward democracy in Europe. (Syllabus of six illustrated lectures.) 

No. 8. From north to south in Europe. (Syllabus of six illustrated lectures.) 

No. 9. Episodes in American history and exploration. (Syllabus of six illus- 
trated lectures.) 

No. 10. Revelations of intrigue. (Stereopticon lecture outline.) 

No. 11. Constitution, Public Speaking League. 

No. 12. Correspondence course in music. 

No. 13. Courses in philosophy, political science, economics, and history. (Cor. 

No. 14. Judging the debate. 

No. 15. Astronomy, oral and dental hygiene, zoology. (Correspondence.) 

No. 16. Stereopticon lecture outline. 

No. 17. The single tax. 

No. 18. Use and care of the gasoline automobile. (Correspondence.) 

No. 19. Disaster and its reaction. (Stereopticon lecture outline.) 

No. 20. Government monopoly of the manufacture of munitions of war. 

No. 21. Correspondence courses in business subjects. 

No. 22. Schedule of classes (January). 

No. 23. Illustrated lectures on art. 

No. 24. Constitution, rules and regulations, junior section, Interscholastic Pub- 
lic-Speaking League. 

i This check list of university extension publications was originally prepared by Dr. Schlicher from 
records in the office of the division of educational extension. The list includes those bulletins and circu- 
lars sent to Washington and those tabulated in the publications of several divisions. 



Volume 3. 1917-18 Continued. 

Nos. 26, 30, 37, 38. Correspondence courses in journalism, business, technical 
subjects, and education. 

No. 32. Illustrated war lectures. 

No. 35. Extension courses offered in southern California. 

No. 40. Schedule of classes. 
Volume 4. 1918-19. 

No. 1. Six-year presidential term. 

No. 4. Correspondence courses in sewing, etc. 

No. 5. Correspondence course in art appreciation. 
In addition, numerous circulars dealing with instruction, exhibits, etc., are issued. 


(Extension bulletins are contained in the University of Colorado bulletin with 
separate numbering.) 


No. 1. High school and college conference. (Abridged reports, 1896, 1898, 1903, 

1909, 1910.) 

No. 2. University extension division. (General statement, 1912.) 
No. 3. Protection against typhoid, 1912. 

No. 4. Municipal water supplies of Colorado. By C. C. Williams. 1912. 
No. 5. Correspondence study centers. (Lectures and addresses. 1912.) 
No. 6. List of serials in University of Colorado library, 1913. 
No. 7. The practical value of birds. By Junius Enderson. 1913. 
No. 8. A week of applied sociology conference of social worker?, 1913. 
No. 9. Report of the week of applied sociology, 1913. (Program.) 
No. 10. Correspondence study classes, lectures, etc. 
No. 11. Graduate courses in medicine, 1913. 

No. 12. Insanity, its nature, causes, and prevention. By Francis Ranely. 1913. 
No. 13. Colorado Sociological Conference. (Social welfare, education. Program, 


No. 14. Sociological Conference, 1914. Report. 
No. 15. Colorado high school and college courses, 1912, 1913, 1914. (Abridged 


No. 16. Colorado Sociological Conference. (Program, 1915.) 

No. 17. Community welfare conferences. (Suggested organization and programs. < 
No. 18. University extension. (Announcement of courses, October, 1915.) 

General Series. 

No. 99. Colorado Sociological Conference and Colorado Municipal League. (Admin- 
istrative efficiency in a democracy. Program, 1916. 

No. 118. Extension courses in clinical laboratory methods, September 7, 1917. 
No. 132. University extension courses. (General announcements, November, lll s . > 
Constitution of the Colorado high school debating league. 
The war is over let's go! 

Business and industrial courses, September, 1915. 
Telling stories to children. 

Program suggestions for women's clubs. (Program, 1917.) 
Social education and public health. 




Volume 1. 1915-1 6. 

No. 1. Correspondence study. 

No. 2. Municipal home rule. (High School Discussion League, October, 1915.) 

No. 3. Lantern slides, 1915. 

No. 4. The community schoolhouse. 

No. 5. First loan exhibit of pictures. 

No 6. Early Indiana history. 

No. 7. Indiana local history. 

No. 8. Westminster Abbey. 

No. 9. Reference aids for schools. 

No. 10. Community welfare programs. 

No. 11. Play and recreation. 

No. 12. Extension courses of instruction at Indianapolis, August, 1916. 
Volume 2. 1916-17. 

No. 1. Play and recreation. (Four papers read at a conference, 1916.) 

No. 2. High School Discussion League. (Compulsory military service for the 
United States.) 

No. 3. Correspondence study. (Courses.) 

No. 4. Extension courses at Fort Wayne, January, 1918. 

No. 5. Community institutes. 

No. 6. Third Conference on Educational Measurements. (Report.) 

No. 7. Package libraries. 

No. 8. Class instruction. 

No. 9. Extension courses at Fort Wayne, September, 1918. 

No. 10. A new constitution for Indiana. (Club study outline.) 

No. 11. City markets. By Frank T. Stockton. 

No. 12. Extension courses of instruction at Fort Wayne. 
Volume 3. 1917-18. 

No. 1. Cooperative retail delivery. By W. S. Bittner. 

No. 2. High School Discussion League. (War finance in the United States.) 

No. 3. Financing the war. By Ray S. Trent. 

No. 4. Extension courses of instruction at Fort Wayne. 

No. 5. Vocational recreation in Indiana, -1916. 

No. 6. Club study outline subjects: America's war problems the background 
of the great war. 

No. 7. Women in industry. By Ray S. Trent. 

No. 9. Extension courses of instruction at Fort Wayne. 

No. 10. Extension courses of instruction at Indianapolis. 

No. 11. Public Markets. By Walton S. Bittner. 

No. 12. Correspondence study. (List of courses.) 
Volume 4. 1918-19. 

No. 1. High School Discussion League. (Universal service for citizenohip.) 

No. 2. Extension courses at Fort Wayne, October, 1918. 

No. 3. Extension courses at Indianapolis, November, 1918. 

No. 4. Fifth Conference on Educational Measurements, 1918. 

No. 5. Town and city beautification. 

No. 6. School and community service. 

No. 7. Visual instruction. 

No. 8. Feeding children at school. 

No. 9. Americanization. 

No. 10. Speakers' bureau. 


Volume 11. 

No. 10. A new constitution for Indiana. (Outline and students' speeches, 

January, 1914.) 
No. 6. Debating and public discussion. (A manual for civic discussion clubs 

June, 1913.) 
Volume 13. 

No. 7. A manual of pageantry. By Robert Withington. 
Volume 15. 

No. 8. Extension division announcement, 1917-18. 
Volume 16. 

No. 6. Extension division announcement, 1918-19. 

A new constitution for Indiana. (First annual contest, Indiana High 

School Discussion League, June, 1914.) 
Topics of interest to women's clubs. 

Baby-saving campaign and child- welfare institute. (Program.) 
Programs of community institutes. 


Visual instruction. (Second loan exhibit of pictures.) 

Visual instruction. (Third loan exhibit of pictures. ) 

Club study. (Departments and courses of study. ) 

Extension lectures. (A list of speakers and subjects.) 

Public library lectures. (A list of speakers and subjects. ) 

Commencement lectures. (A list of speakers and subjects.) 

Community institutes. (Explanation and suggested programs. ) 

Community institutes. (Methods of organization. ) 

The fourteen-minute speech. 

Public discussion. (Package libraries.) 

Public discussion . ( D ebates . ) 

State High School Discussion League. 

Visual instruction. (Equipment.) 

Visual instruction (Third loan exhibit of pictures.) 

Visual instruction. (Motion pictures.) 

Play and recreation. 

Fourth exhibit of pictures. 

Problems of the war. 



No. 1. Street lighting. By Arthur H. Ford. 

No. 2. Rate-making for public utilities. By Wm. C. Raymond. 

No. 3. Engineering as a profession. By Wm. C. Raymond. 

No. 4. Store lighting. By Arthur H. Ford. 

No. 5. Economy of time in arithmetic. By Walter H. Jessup. 

No. 6. Vocational guidance in high schools. By Ervin E. Lewis. 

No. 7. Ninth annual announcement of the Iowa High School Debating League. By 
Glenn N. Merry. 

No. 8. Waterworks statistics of 38 cities of Iowa, with the meter rates of 70 cities. By 
John II . Dunlap. 

No. 9. Work, wages, and schooling of 800 Iowa hoys in relation to the problem of voca- 
tional guidance. By Ervin E. Lewis. 

No. 10. Principles of advertising. By Philip J. Sodergren. 


No. 11. Hygienic conditions in Iowa schools. By Irving King. 
No. 12. Tenth annual announcement of the Iowa High School Debating League. By 

Glenn N. Merry. 

No. 13. Employers 1 welfare work in Iowa. By Paul S. Pierce. 
No. 14. Iowa handbook on child welfare. 
No. 15. Present attainment in handwriting of school children in Iowa. By Ernest 

J. Ashbaugh. 

No. 16. Child welfare surveys and bibliography. 
No. 17. Correspondence courses. 
No. 18. High school plays. By Glenn N. Merry. 
No. 19. Culture and women's clubs. By Thomas H. MacBride. 
No. 21. Loan collections of lantern slides. 
No. 22. Municipal accounting. By Russell A. Stevenson. 
No. 23. Eleventh annual announcement of the Iowa High School Debating League. 

By Glenn N. Merry. 

No. 24. Arithmetical skill of Iowa school children. By Ernest J. Ashbaugh. 
No. 25. Standards of measuring junior high schools. By Ervin E. Lewis. 
No. 26. The social survey. By Bessie A. McClenahan. 
No. 27. The Iowa desk book of newspaper practices. By Conger Reynolds. 
No. 28. Twelfth annual announcement of the Iowa High School Debating League. 

By Glenn N. Merry. 
No. 29. German submarine warfare against the United States, 1915-1917. By Louis 


No. 30. Newspaper English. By Sam B. Sloan. 
No. 31. The Monroe Doctrine and the War. By Harry G. Plum. 
No. 32. The conservation of sugar. By Ernest Horn and Maude M. McBroom. 
No. 33. The fifth annual recreational camp for girls. 
No. 34. Iowa Training Camp for Scoutmasters. 
No. 35. Conference for Religious Workers. 
No. 36. The overdraft evil as illustrated by conditions in Iowa banks. By Nathaniel 

R. Whitney. 

No. 37. Survey of the high schools of Des Moines. By Ervin E. Lewis. 
No. 38. Thirteenth annual announcement of the Iowa High School Debating League. 
No. 39. Loan collections of lantern slides. 
No. 40. Iowa Patriotic League. (Bibliography.) 

No. 41. Survey of the school buildings of Muscatine. By Ernest J. Ashbaugh. 
No. 42. Parent- teacher associations in Iowa. 
No. 43. Iowa spelling scale. By Ernest J. Ashbaugh. 
Programs of Retail Merchant's Conferences. 



Training for debating, with model briefs, 1910. 

The recall of judges, wi-th bibliography and references, 1913. 

Constructive juvenile effort in Kansas. 

Announcement of the Kansas High School Debating League, August, 1918, with 

bibliography and references on compulsory arbitration (also list of debates since 

Announcement of extension lectures, lecture courses, and concerts, with general 

information, 1915. 

Suggestions for forming child welfare organization. 
Merchants week lectures, 1915. (Report.) 
Bulletin of the Department of General Information. 


Correspondence study courses, 1918. 
The cigarette problem. 


Department of general information. 

Play service. 

Visual instruction, 1918-19. 

Commencement addresses, 1918. 

Public speaking in high schools. 

The cigarette problem. 

How to enter the child welfare movement. 

Juvenile thrift and industry. 

Home and school gardening. 

Child welfare in war time. 

Women's clubs, debating outlines, package libraries, 1918-19. 

Plays for schools, 1918. 

Public speaking in the high school. 

Service of the university extension division. (Description of departments.) 



Volume 1. 1916. 

No. 1. Correspondence courses, 1916. 

No. 2. Correspondence and group-study courses, 1916. 

No. 3. News bulletin. 

No. 4. Courses for class instruction. 

No. 5. Courses for correspondence instruction. 

No. 6. Courses to be offered in cooperation with public libraries in Massachu- 
Volume 2. 1917. 

No. 1. Second annual report on university extension. 

No. 2. Educational extension opportunities in Massachusetts. 

No. 3. Bureau of Class Instruction and Bureau of Correspondence Instruction. 
(List of courses May, 1917.) 

No. 5. Food thrift. 

No. 6. Courses offered for correspondence instruction. November, 1917. 
Volumes. 1918. 

No. 3. Courses offered for correspondence instruction, May, 1918. 

No. 5. Courses offered for class instruction, 1918-19. 

No. 6. Courses offered for- correspondence instruction, 1918-19. 

University extension courses, 1918-19, offered by the Boston commission on exten- 
sion courses. 

Public document No. 113. Third annual report of the board of education depart- 
ment of university extension, January, 1918. 



No. 2. School-improvement agencies, 1913. 

No. 3. Consolidation of schools in Missouri, 1913. 

No. 4. Correspondence courses in high-school subjects, 1913. 

No. 6. Preservation of food in the home, 1914. 

No. 7. Care of free textbooks, 1914. 


No. 9. Abnormal and defective children. 1014. 

No. 11. The house fly, 1914. 

No. 12. Correspondence courses in high-school study, 1915. 

No. 13. Announcements of the extension division. 1915-36. 

No. 14. Technical manual arts for general educational purposes. 1910. 

No. 15. Country roads, 1916. (2 parts.) 

No. 16. Hand work in grades 1 to 6, 1916. 

No. 19. Correspondence courses in high-school subjects, September. 1916. 

No. 20. Announcement of the extension division, 1916-17. 

No. 21. Manual for the mental and physical examination of children, 1916. 

No. 22. Better highways, 1916. 

No. 23. The feeding of children, 1917. 

No. 24. Feeding the baby, 1917. 

No. 25. Extension division Announcement, 1917-18. 

No. 26. Extension division Announcement, 1919-20. 

Constitution of the Missouri High-School Debating League. 

Announcement of the extension division, 1912-13. 


Americanization training course, 1918-19. 
Community centers. 
Effective debating. 
Programs of merchants' short courses. 
University extension lectures, 1918-19. 
Correspondence courses, 1918-19. 
Announcement of evening courses, 1918-19. 
University extension What and why? 
Handbook of extension service. 
Community service. 
The key to opportunity. 


Library extension service, 1918-19. 
Michigan High-School Debating League. 
Extension credit courses, 1918-19. 
Extension service, 1918-19. 


High-School Debating League. 

High-school declamation contest, high-school universal contest, 191 8- 19. 

Play festivals. 

Extension division Announcements. 

University extension lectures. 

Correspondence study. 



Debate and declamation. 
Compulsory military training. 
Woman suffrage. 
Addresses on education for use in declaiming, essay writing, and reading. 

153448 20 8 


The initiative and referendum. 

Public discussion and debate. 

Ship subsidies. 

The enlargement of the Navy. 

Government ownership of railroads. 

Compulsory arbitration of industrial disputes. 

Announcement and regulations of the High School Debating Union of North Carolina, 

Selections for speaking in the public schools. 

County economic and social surveys. 

Cooperative institutions among the farmers of Catawba County. 

Syllabus of home-county club studies. 

Country life institutes. 

The North Carolina Club Year-Book, 1915-16. 

Sampson County: Economic and social. 

The North Carolina Year-Book, 1916-17. 

Local study clubs. 

Correspondence courses, extension lectures. 

Extension circulars. 

Our country-church problem. 

Our Carolina highlanders. 

Wealth, welfare, and willingness in North Carolina. 

County government and county affairs. 

The country church. 

Educational information and assistance. 

A professional library for teachers in secondary schools. 

The teaching of county geography. 

Measurement of achievement in the fundamental elementary-school subjects. 

War-information series. 

War-information service. 

The Lafayette Association. 

A program for extension for a time of war. 

Why we are at war with Germany. 

Single lectures concerning the war. 

Extension courses and lectures. 

Will you keep the freedom our soldiers win? 

National ideals in British and American literature. 

Extension leaflets. 

The American university and the new nationalism. 

The community pageant. 

Reconstruction and citizenship. 

Studies in the social and industrial condition of women as affected by the war. 


Community programs. 
A community forum. 
Club programs. 




No. 12. A student's manual of debating and parliamentary practice. 

No. 13. The initiative and referendum. (Out.) 

No. 15. Unicameral legislatures. 72 pages. 

No. 16. Guaranty of bank deposits. 80 pages. (Out.) 

No. 17. Woman suffrage. 80 pages. (Out.) 

No. 18. Consolidation of rural schools. 32 pages. 

No. 20. The preferential ballot. 56 pages. 

No. 21. Government ownership of railways. 116 pages. 

No. 22. The single tax. 162 pages. 

No. 24. Workmen's compensation, 132 pages. 

No. 26. Selling munitions of war. 64 pages. 

No. 27. Municipal affairs. 

No. 28. Continuing the Monroe doctrine. 148 pages. 

No. 29. Proceedings Third Annual Convention Oklahoma Municipal League. 

No. 30. Teachers' pensions. 52 pages. 

No. 33. Correspondence study, Sept., 1917. 

No. 34. Compulsory arbitration of labor disputes. 

No. 36. Current events study. 96 pages. 

No. 37. Oklahoma municipalities. 

No. 38. Current events study, 1917-18. 

No. 39. Oklahoma municipalities. 

No. 40. Woman suffrage No. 2. 80 pages. 

No. 41. Studies on current topics. 80 pages. Part 1. The Great War. 

No. 43. The city-manager plan. 77 pages. 

No. 44. Social problem. 156 pages. 

No. 45. Catalogue of material on war and the problems of peace, general subjects, 


No. 46. Problems of personal development. 
The study of current topics. 

List of illustrated lectures and stereopticon slides. 
Debating contests. 
Traveling libraries. 
Department of community music. 
Current events study. 
Conference on taxation, 1914. (Program.) 
Conference on rural economic problem, 1916. (Program.) 
Visual instruction. 

The Extension Division. (Departments and activities.) 
Constitution of the Oklahoma High School Debating League. 
Debating contests. 



Volume 5. 1916-17. 
Volume 6. 1917-18. 


Home study courses ior teachers, 1918. 

Lecture courses and study classes, 1918. 

Slimmer classes for university credit (Portland center), 1918. 

Emergency courses for men in war industries, 1918. 

Putting the eyes to work, 1917. 


Train for citizenship, 1918. 

Institute lectures and subjects. 

Oregon High School Debating League, ] 917-18. 

Correspondence study catalogue, October, 1918. 


(Extension bulletins are included in the University of Texas bulletin, but without 
separate numbering.) 


No. 284. Intercollegiate debates on old-age insurance, banking and currency reform, 

No. 30. A constitutional tax for the support of higher educational institutions in 

Texas, 1915. 

No. 31. Woman suffrage. (Bibliography and selected arguments. 1915.) 
No. 35. School literary societies, 1915. 
No. 70. Christmas entertainments, 1915. 
No. 4. How to conduct a baby health conference, 1916. 
No. 16. Schoolhouse meetings; school- closing exercises. 1916. 
No. 17. The beautification of the home grounds, 1916. 
No. 26. The furnishing and decoration of the home, 1916. 
No. 39. The planning of simple homes, 1916. 

No. 40. Study outlines of Elizabeth Harrison's "Child Nature." 1916. 
No. 41. Military preparedness, 1916. 
No. 42. What help the teacher can get from the University Extension Department, 


No. 47. Single tax, 1916. 

No. 48. Care and preservation of food in the home, 1916. 
No. 56. Programs for schoolhouse meetings, 1916. 
No. 57. The mourning dove, 1916. 
No. 62. Universal military training, 1916. 
No. 67. A study of rural schools in Travis County, 1916. 
No. 72. A play for San Jacinto night, 1916. 
No. 1708. What the Baby Health Conference teaches. 
No. 1711. Pure milk and how to get it. 
No. 1717. School savings banks. 

No. 1730. Visual instruction through lantern slides and motion pictures. 
No. 1739. How a superintendent may aid his teachers in self-improvement. 
No. 1740. Announcement of correspondence courses. 
No. 1748. The bobwhite. 

No. 1756. Food conservation to help win the war. 
No. 1765. Announcement of extension work for war service. 
No. 1769. How to organize and conduct a school and community fair. 
No. 1804. Food for infants and growing children. 
No. 1805. Red Cross program for schools. 
No. 1807. Announcement of group-study courses. 
No. 1809. Lantern slides for war service. 

No. 1830. Constitution and rules of the University Interscholastir League. 
No. 1831. University aid for Community Councils of Defense. 
No. 1832. War songs for community meetings. 
No. 1833. The extension loan library and list of free bulletins. 
No. 1834. Words for the spelling matches of the University Interwholat*tic I r.j.ue. 
No. 1837. Patriotic programs for community meet in.-s. 
No. 1842. Play and athletics. 
Valentine and Washington Birthday celebrations. 



Yearbook of the High School Debating League. 
Extension center work. 


Community thrift. 

School and community survey and community welfare work. 
Infant mortality. 
Health lectures. 

Correspondence study courses, 1918-19. 
Circulars containing announcements. 

The Utah Educational Review, published by the Extension Division, contains 
frequent announcements and news of extension work. 



Volume 1. 1915-16. 

No. 1. High School Literary and Athletic League. (Literary societies in sec- 
ondary schools: Part 1, Organization; Part 2, Parliamentary forms and rules; 

Part 3, Questions for debate, arguments and references.) (Ten questions.) 
No. 2. University extension lectures. 
No. 3. The Virginia High School Literary and Athletic League. (Compulsory 


No. 4. Religious activities and advantages at the University of Virginia. 
No. 5. Program for the use of Sundayschools and churches and the observance 

of country-church day. 

No. 6. Announcement of the Curry Memorial School of Education. 
No. 7. Program of the Ninth Annual Rural-Life Conference, 1916. 
Volume 2. 1916-17. 

No. 1. Official syllabus of Bible study for high school pupils. 

No. 2. The Virginia High School and Athletic League. (Compulsory Military 


No. 3. Bibliography of educational surveys and tests. 
No. 4. Principles involved in teaching of hand writing. 
No. 5. Summer school of music. 

Nos. 6-7. The Jewish Chautauqua Society and the University of Virginia. 
Nos. 8-9. The relation of the colleges and universities of the South to the national 


No. 10. Albermarle Highway Association, 
Volume3. 1917-18. 

No. 1. A study of school recesses. 

No. 2. Virginia High School Literary and Athletic League. (Debate" A league 

to enforce peace.") 
No. 3. War Extension Service. 

Catalog of the Houston Art League collection of prints. 
Volume 4. 1918-19. 

Nos. 1-5. Government ownership and operation of railroads. (Debating Bulletin.) 


Volume 5. No. 4. Rural-life Conference, 1912. 
Volume 7. No. 4. Rural-life Conference, 1914. 
Virginia High School Bulletin often contains extension news and announcements. 



General extension bulletin. 

South Carolina High School Debating League. 

School surveys. 

The school as a social center. 

Cooperative courses in the school of engineering. 


Better Business. Monthly magazine. First number in March, 1916. $1.50 a year. 
The University Extension Journal. Quarterly (1914). 


No. 2. The social and civic center. 

No. 3. State roads and permanent highways. 

No. 4. The recall of judges. 

No. 6. The single tax. 

No. 7. The making of a newspaper. 

No. 9. Immigration. (Debate outline.) 

No. 10. The better newspaper. 

No. 11. Supplementary lectures in journalism, 1913-14. 

No. 12. Taxation in Washington. 

No. 14. Government ownership of telegraph and telephone. 

No. 15. Newspaper production. 

No. 16. Supplementary lectures in journalism. 

No. 17. Survey of the Port Townsend public schools. 

No. 18. Ethical aspects of journalism. 

No. 19. Supplementary lectures in journalism, 1915-16. 

No. 20. Military training in the public schools. 

No. 21. Ores, coals, and useful rocks of Washington. 

No. 22. Some newspaper problems, 1917. 

Circulars of Information. 



Chart on communicable diseases, 1917. 

Commercial organizations and charitable control, 1915. 

Community music and drama, 1918. 

Eye in industrial accidents, September, 1916. 

Food conservation through utilization of garbage waste, 1918. 

General prospects, 1913. 

Guarding the public health, 1913. 

Industrial education and dependency, 1918. 

Meadowgold (a play), 1914. 

Municipal and sanitary engineering, 1914. 

Nursing as a vocation for women, 1917. 

Newspaper conference proceedings, 1913. 

Organized poor relief work in Wisconsin, 1915. 

Vocational conference papers, 1913. 

Vocational education and guidance for disabled soldiers, 1917. 

Wisconsin baby week, 1917. 

Public recreation, 1915. 

Some aspects of feeble-mindedness in Wisconsin. 

Tuberculosis, 1909. 


Milwaukee Bakers' Institute, 1910. 
The manual arts as vocations, 1918. 
Prenatal care. 


De Pere Community Institute program, 1914, 1915. 
Kaukauna Community Institute program, 1915. 
Mayville Community Institute program, 1915. 
Menomonee Falls Community Institute program, 1914. 
Middletown Community Institute program, 1914. 
Neillsville Community Institute program, 1914. 
New London Community Institute program, 1914. 
Stephens Point Institute, 1913. 

Sauk City Community Institute; Results and opinions, 1913. 
Organizations of community institutes, 1915. 


Assessed valuation and tax rates of Wisconsin cities, 1918. 

Comparative salaries of city officials in Wisconsin. 

Juvenile probation in Wisconsin, 1914. 

Municipal coal yards, 1918. 

Municipal special reports, 1918. 

Uniform municipal accounts, 1915. 

Voting machines in Wisconsin, 1915. 

What is the municipal reference bureau? 1915. 


Lessons learned in Rochester, 1911. 

The rural awakening, 1912. 

Schoolhouse as a local art gallery, 1912. 

Social center in the southwest, 1912. 

Social center movement, 1911. 

The community center a means of common understanding, 1911. 

Parent-teacher associations, 1918. 


A league of nations. (Debating bulletin.) 

How to judge a debate. 

Municipal home rule. 

Triangular Discussion League. (American Song Contest.) 

The great war. 

Initiative and referendum. 

The recall. 

School literary societies training for citizenship. 

Modern European history and the great war. 

Debating manual. 

Service and the State by the university extension division. 

Biennial report of the dean of extension. 


Advisory mail instruction, 45. 

Agricultural colleges, general extension, 96. 

Alderman, E. A., on war extension service, 42-43. 

American and English movements, relation, 15-24. 

Americanization, activities, 35-36,48-49. 

Arizona, University of. See University of Arizona. 

Arkansas, University of. See University of Arkansas. 

Birge, E. A., on service to the Commonwealth through university extension, 38-42. 

Bruere, R. W., on British and American labor programs, 22. 

Bureau of Education, and educational extension, 10. 

Bureau teaching, 50. 

Business service, 47. 

California, University of. See University of California. 

Capen, S. P., on the Federal Government and educational extension, 10. 

Chicago, University of. See University of Chicago. 

Child welfare, promotion, 49. 

Class and club instruction, definition, 44. 

Club study, 45. 

Colleges and universities, statistics of extension activities, 61. 

Colorado, University of. See University of Colorado 

Columbia University, extension work, 88-89. 

Community center service, 33, 48. 

Community institutes, 46. 

Conferences, 46. 

Cooperative societies, and educational extension, 21. 

Correspondence instruction, definition, 44; teaching, 49-50. 

Cultural education, interest in, 22-23. 

Definition, extension work, 10-12, 44-48. 

Demonstrations, scientific, 45. 

Directed reading courses, 45. 

Directory of general extension services, 70-76. 

Discussion and debate service, 47. 

Drama, community, 48. 

Educational extension, definition, 10-12. 

Employment service, 49. 

Engineering, extension work, 56-59. 

English and American movements, relation, 15-24. 

Essential elements of university extension, 38-43. 

Extension class instruction, definition, 44. 

Extension teaching service, definition, 44. 

Extent of extension work. 60-69. 

Federal aid to education, 26. 

Federal Board for Vocational Education, and soldiers' education, 30. 

Federal division of educational extension, activities, 27-36. 

Federal publications, use of, 34. 


122 INDEX. 

Fisher, H. A. L., on English education bill, 23. 

Florida, budget for general extension, 104-105. 

Florida, University of. See University of Florida. 

Forum teaching, 50. 

General information service, 46-47. 

Greenwood, Arthur, on adult education, 22. 

Health, extension work, 30, 51-56. 

Henderson, George, on university extension, 14. 

History of university extension, 1415. 

Idaho, University of. See University of Idaho. 

Illinois, University of. See University of Illinois. 

Indiana University, extension work, 65, 81-82; list of extension publications, 109-110. 

Institutes and short courses, 46. 

Instructors, methods of payment, 103-104. 

Iowa, University of. See University of Iowa. 

Kandel, I. L., on English extension and relation to labor movement, 15. 

Kansas, University of. See University of Kansas. 

Kentucky, University of. See University of Kentucky. 

Klein, A. J., on new educational projects, 25-26. 

Kolbe, P. R., on educational system of the United States, 9. 

Labor movement in England, and university extension, 15-16. 

Labor programs, democratization of education, 22. 

Lectures, 45. 

Libraries, educational extension work, 33-34, 35; package service, 47. 

Lighty, W. H., definitions of extension activities, 49-50. 

Lyceum service, 48, 50. 

MacLean, G. E., on university extension, 23. 

Massachusetts Board of Education, department of university extension, activities, 

48-49, 64, 84; list of publications, 112. 

Massachusetts Commission on Extension Courses, work, 64, 84-85. 
Merchants' short courses, 46. 
Methods of payment to instructors, 103, 104. 
Michigan, University of. See University of Michigan. 
Minnesota, University of. See University of Minnesota. 
Mississippi Agricultural and Mechanical College, extension work, 96. 
Missouri, University of. See University of Missouri. 
Montana, University of. See University of Montana. 
Motion-picture service, 47-48. 
Municipal reference work, 47. 
Music, community, 48. 
National Library Service, activities, 35. 
National University Extension Association, activities, 36-37; organization and 

administration, 14. 

Nebraska, University of. See University of Nebraska. 
Nevada, University of. See University of Nevada. 
New Mexico, University of. See University of New Mexico. 
Nietzsche, on education for the masses, 24. 

North Carolina, University of. See University of North Carolina. 
North Dakota, University of. See University of North Dakota. 
Oklahoma, University of. See University of Oklahoma. 
Oregon, University of. See University of Oregon. 
Organization and administration, 97-106. 
Oxford University, report on extension movement, 17-18. 

INDEX. 123 

Package library service, 33, 47. 

Pittsburgh, University of. See University of Pittsburgh. 

Public discussion and library service, 33. 

Public service, 46. 

Publications, extension divisions, 49; list, 107-119. 

Reber, L. E., on educational extension at University of Wisconson, 13. 

Reed College, extension work, 64. 

Ruskin College, England, and the working-class movement, 21: 

Schlicher, J. J., on extension work in engineering. 56-59. 

Service to schools, 49. 

Soldiers, education, 30. 

South Dakota, University of. See University of South Dakota. 

Special visual instruction, 45. 

State universities, extension activities, 77-95. See also under names of institutions. 

Teacher-training courses, 46. 

Texas, University of. See University of Texas. 

United States, development of educational extension and the Federal Government, 10. 

University, mission and development, 12-13. 

University of Arizona, extension work, 77. 

University of Arkansas, extension work, 78; list of extension publications, 114. 

University of California, extension work, 78-79 ; list of extension publications, 107-108. 

University of Chicago, extension work, 81. 

University of Colorado, extension work, 79; list of extension publications, 108. 

University of Florida, extension work, 80. 

University of Idaho, extension work, 80. 

University of Illinois, extension work, 80-81. 

University of Iowa, extension work, 82-83; list of extension publications, 110-111. 

University of Kansas, extension work, 83; list of extension publications, 111-112. 

University of Kentucky, extension work, 84. 

University of Michigan, extension work, 85; list of extension publications, 113. 

University of Minnesota, extension work, 61-62, 86; list of extension publications, 113. 

University of Missouri, extension work, 86; list of extension publications, 112-113. 

University of Montana, extension work, 87. 

University of Nebraska, extension work, 87. 

University of Nevada, extension work, 87. 

University of New Mexico, extension work, 88. 

University of North Carolina, extension work, 62,89-90; list of extension publications, 

University of North Dakota, extension work, 90; list of extension publications, 113. 

University of Oklahoma, extension work, 62, 90-91; list of extension publications, 115. 

University of Oregon, extension work, 91-92; list of extension publications, 115-116. 

University of Pittsburgh, extension work, 62-63, 92. 

University of South Carolina, list of extension publications, 118. 

University of South Dakota, extension work, 92; list of extension publications, 117. 

University of Texas, extension work, 92-93; list of extension publications, 116. 

University of Utah, extension work, 93; list of extension publications, 117. 

University of Virginia, extension work, 93; list of extension publications, 117. 

University. of Washington, extension work, 94; list of extension publications, 118. 

University of Wisconsin, 'extension work, 13, 65-69, 94-95; list of extension publica- 
tions, 118-119. 

University of Wyoming, extension work, 63, 95. 

University policy, place and function of an extension division, 105-106. 

University tutorial classes, England, 16-17, 18-20. 

124 INDEX. 

Utah, University of. See University of Utah. 

Virginia, University of. See University of Virginia. 

Visual instruction service, 30-33, 47-48. 

War, the, and educational extension, 24-27, 42-43. 

Washington, University of. See University of Washington. 

Wisconsin, University of. See University of Wisconsin. 

Workers' Educational Association, England, 16, 19, 23. 

Workingmen's colleges, England-, 21-22. 

Wyoming, University of. See University of Wyoming. 



[Continued from page 2 of cover.] 

No. 45. North central accredited secondary schools. Calvin O. Davis. 
No. 46. Bibliography of home economics. Carrie A. Lyford. 
No. 47. Private commercial and business schools, 1917-18. 
No. 48. Educational hygiene. Willard S. Small. 
No. 49. Education in parts of the British Empire. 
No. 50. Report on the public school system of Memphis, Tenn. 
No. 51. The application of commercial advertising methods to university ex- 
tension. Mary B. Orvis. 

52. Industrial schools for delinquents, 1917-18. 

53. Educational work of the Young Men's Christian Associations, 


No. 54. The schools of Austria-Hungary. Peter H. Pearson. 

No. 55. Business education in secondary schools. 

No. 56. The administration of correspondence-study departments of universities 
and colleges. Arthur J. Klein. 

No. 57. Educational conditions in Japan. Walter A. Montgomery. 

No. 58. Commercial engineering. Glen L. Swiggett. 

No. 59. Some phases of educational progress in Latin America. Walter A. 

No. 60. Monthly record of current educational publications, September, 1010. 

No. 61. Public discussion and information service of university extension. Wal- 
ton S. Bittner. 

No. 62. Class extension work in universities and colleges of the United States. 
Arthur J. Klein. 

No. 63. Natural science teaching in Great Britain. 

No. 64. Library activities, 1916-1918. John D. Wolcott. 

No. 65. The eyesight of school children. J. H. Berkowitz. 

No. 66. Training teachers of agriculture. 

No. 67. Monthly record of current educational publications, October, 1919. 

No. 68. Financial and building needs of the schools of Lexington, Ky. 

No. 69. Proceedings of the fourth annual meeting of the National Council of 
Primary Education. 

No. 70. Schools and classes for feeble-minded and subnormal children, 1918. 

No. 71. Educational directory, 1919-20. 

No. 72. An abstract of the report on the public-school system of Memphis, Tenn. 

No. 73. Nurse training schools, 1918. 

No. 74. The Federal Executive Departments as sources of information for libra- 
ries. Edith Guerrier. 

No. 75. Monthly record of current educational publications, November, 1919. 

No. 76. Community Americanization. Fred C. Butler. 

No. 77. State Americanization. Fred C. Butler. 

No. 78. Schools and classes for the blind, 1917-18. 

No. 79. Schools for the deaf, 1917-18, 

No. 80. Teaching English to the foreign born. Henry H. Goldberger. 

No. 81. Statistics of normal schools, 1917-18. L. E. Blauch and H. R. Bonner. 

No. 82. Motion pictures and motion picture equipment. 

No. 83. Monthly record of current educational publications, December, 1919. 

No. 84. The university extension movement. W. S. Bittner. 

No. 85. Development of agricultural instruction in secondary schools. 

No. 86. Administration and supervision of village schools. 

LC Bittner, Walter Simon 

6231 The iniversity extension 

B55 movement